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Crop Genetics and Breeding·Germplasm Resources·Molecular Genetics·Physiology and Biochemistry
Identification of TRM gene family and fiber quality related excellent haplotype analysis in Gossypium hirsutum L.
WANG Kaidi, GAO Chenxu, PEI Wenfeng, YANG Shuxian, ZHANG Wenqing, SONG Jikun, MA Jianjiang, WANG Li, YU Jiwen, CHEN Quanjia
2024, 61(3): 521-536.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.001
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【Objective】 Identification of TRM gene family and fiber quality related excellent haplotype analysis in Gossypium hirsutum L.【Methods】 Bioinformatics was used to analyze the evolutionary relationship,physicochemical properties and cluster expression of TRM gene families.Candidate genes regulating fiber quality traits(fiber length,strength,and Macron value) were screened by gene haplotype analysis.【Results】 The analysis of physicochemical properties showed that the amino acids encoded by this family gene ranged from 376-1,093,with isoelectric points ranging from 4.64-9.56.Subcellular localization predicted that up to 60 TRM family genes were localized in the nucleus.The results of cis-acting element analysis showed that TRM gene family contained more elements related to light response,hormone response,stress response and growth and development.Transcriptome data showed that 60 TRM family genes were expressed preferentially during fiber development,which might regulate cotton fiber development.Furthermore,1,245 upland cotton materials were used to genotype TRM,and the number of haplotypes of each gene was found to be 1-8,and 14,18 and 15 excellent haplotype TRM genes related to fiber length,strength and Macron value were screened,respectively.Among them,11 genes had excellent haplotypes of length,strength and micronotype.The Hap_4 haplotype of GH_D09G0775 and the Hap_3 haplotype of GH_D03G1434 increased fiber length and strength while decreasing the Macron value.【Conclusion】 In this study,75 TRM family members were identified on 24 chromosomes in upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.),which were systematically divided into cluster evolution Ⅰ-Ⅲ3 subtribe.

Effects of different planting patterns and varieties on the production of photosynthetic substances in cotton and the impact of output
SUN Minghui, Yeerlan Muhetar, ZHAI Menghua, LI Xuerui, XU Xinlong, ZHANG Jusong
2024, 61(3): 537-546.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.002
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【Objective】 To explore the effects of different planting modes and variety interactions on the production of photosynthetic substances and yield of cotton.【Methods】 A field experiment was conducted in Hailou Town,Shaya County,Southern Xinjiang in 2022.Two machine harvesting planting modes were selected,namely "one film with three rows of 76 cm equal row spacing" and "one film with six rows(66+10) cm wide and narrow row spacing".Four cotton varieties with different plant types and structures,Yuanmian 11,Xinluzhong 80,Xinluzhong 84,and J206-5,were extensively cultivated in Southern Xinjiang and the effects of different planting modes and variety interactions on cotton growth process,plant morphology,leaf area index,canopy opening,net photosynthetic rate,dry matter accumulation,and yield were analyzed.【Results】 The growth period of one film with three rows was shortened by 3-7 days compared to one film with six rows,and the plant height and height of the initial fruit branch were greatly affected by the planting mode.In the early stage of cotton growth,one film with three rows was more conducive to cotton production and development compared to one film with six rows.The LAI and Pn of each variety showed that one film with three rows was greater than one film with six rows.However,in the later stage of growth,different cotton varieties of different plant types performed differently.The loose type Yuanmian 11 and J206-5 maintain higher LAI and Pn under one film with three rows,while the compact plant types Xinluzhong 80 and Xinluzhong 84 performed better under one film with six rows.This in turn affected the formation of photosynthetic substances and yield.Yuanmian 11 and J206-5 increased their yield by 15.98% to 16.37% compared to one film and six rows,while Xinluzhong 80 and Xinluzhong 84 increased their yield by 9.23%-12.00% compared to one film and three rows.【Conclusion】 Different cotton varieties should choose suitable planting modes in order to further unleash their potential for yield increase.Cotton varieties with loose plant types are suitable for planting at a spacing of 76 cm,while cotton varieties with compact plant types are suitable for planting in the(66+10) cm mode.

Effect of sowing period and density on growth and development and yield of Gossypium hirsutum L.
ZHANG Junyao, WANG Jiayong, TANG Jianghua, LOU Shanwei, LI Wenshan, XU Wenxiu, MENG Lingyi, HE Hongtao, SANG Junmin
2024, 61(3): 547-555.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.003
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【Objective】 To study the effects of different combinations of sowing period and density on the growth of cotton and investigate the suitable planting density for high cotton yield under different sowing periods.【Methods】 The experiment was conducted in Shawan City,the Tacheng region of Xinjiang in 2022 by using a split-zone experimental design with three main sowing zones,(April 11,April 18 and April 25,remember B1,B2,B3),and three density sub-zones (180,000,225,000 and 270,000 plants/hm2, renember M1,M2,M3),respectively,to study the effects of the two factors of sowing and density on seedling emergence,fertility process,agronomic traits,dry matter accumulation and yield of cotton.Afterwards,the effects of sowing and density on seedling rate,fertility,agronomic traits,dry matter accumulation and yield were studied.【Results】 The results showed that high ground temperature under the film 5 cm after sowing was beneficial to early emergence of cotton,and the emergence rate was increased.Under the same sowing period,with the increase of planting density,the fertility period of cotton was prolonged and the mean values of plant height,stem thickness,number of fruiting branches and number of boll per plant were significantly reduced.Under the same density,the average fertility period of cotton was shortened with delayed sowing,the average dry matter accumulation per plant and population was decreased,the number of boll per plant was significantly lower,and the average seed cotton yield was reduced.Under the early sowing condition,the highest seed cotton yield was 7,519.70 kg/hm2 at high density(M3,270,000 plants/hm2),and the higher yield was 7,671.90 and 6,913.27 kg/hm2 at medium or late sowing conditions at medium density(M2,225,000 plants/hm2),respectively.【Conclusion】 On balance,under suitable weather conditions,the appropriate planting density is 270,000 plants/hm2(M3) when the sowing date is April 11,and 225,000 plants/hm2(M2) when the sowing date is April 18(B2) or April 25(B3),which is conducive to the improvement of cotton yield.

Effects of organic liquid fertilizer on canopy characteristics,yield and quality of cotton
ZHAO Houxiu, HAO Xianzhe, SHI Feng, LI Junhong, LIANG Qi, WANG Tangang, TIAN Liwen, LUO Honghai, WANG Jun
2024, 61(3): 556-564.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.004
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【Objective】 To ascertain the effects of organic liquid fertilizer on canopy characteristics,yield and quality of cotton under membrane drip irrigation in southern Xinjiang.【Methods】 Tahe No.2 was selected as the test variety,and the cotton field with single fertilizer application was used as the control(CK).Organic liquid fertilizer treatment(carried out in the five fields of T1,T2,T3,T4 and T5) was set.The changes of plant height,main stem and leaf number,leaf area index,leaf dip angle,yield and quality under different treatments were measured and analyzed.【Results】 Compared with CK,the application of organic liquid fertilizer increased plant height,leaf number,leaf area index,leaf inclination and aboveground biomass of cotton.When the seed cotton yield reached 6,000 kg/hm2,plant height,leaf number of main stem,leaf area index and leaf inclination angle increased by 1.3-10.3 cm,2.0-2.3,1.7-2.9 and 5.6-9.3° compared with CK,respectively.Compared with CK,the dry matter weight of nutrition and reproductive organs increased by 1.3-25.7 g/plant and 0.1-44.5 g/plant,respectively.When the seed cotton yield exceeded 6,000 kg/hm2,the seed cotton yield,single boll weight and total boll number increased by 17.2%-31.9%,15.5%-28.8% and 3.5%-10.1% compared with CK,respectively.In addition,compared with CK,the average length,uniformity and breaking strength of the top half of cotton were improved by applying organic liquid fertilizer.【Conclusion】 Compared with single application of chemical fertilizer,the application of organic liquid fertilizer can improve cotton canopy structure,promote dry matter accumulation,increase yield and improve quality with low cost and easy operation,which is suitable for popularization and application in cotton area in southern Xinjiang.

Extraction and accuracy evaluation of cotton canopy temperature under drip irrigation based on uav thermal infrared remote sensing
DANG Xuwei, LIN Xinyuan, HE Zheng, CHEN Yan, CI Baoxia, MA Xuehua, GUO Chenli, HE Yaxing, LIU Yang, MA Fuyu
2024, 61(3): 565-575.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.005
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【Objective】 To increase the accuracy of canopy temperature extraction derived from thermal infrared imagery of drip irrigated cotton in Xinjiangin the hope of providing a technical support for precise water status monitoring.【Methods】 Different soil moisture contents were set at cotton seedling and squaring stages.The thermal infrared images of different treatments were acquired by using UAV,and the temperature of radiation calibration plate in plot and water in the bucket were measured by using a portable handheld thermometer.For the above information,the latter temperature was used to calibrate the former temperature extracted from thermal imagery.The Otsu and Canny edge detection algorithms were used to mask thermal infrared images and remove soil background.Cotton canopy temperature was extracted by region of interest(ROI) and band math,and then the canopy temperature frequency histograms were plotted and optimized.Meanwhile,the actual cotton canopy temperature was obtained from a portable handheld thermometer.The consistency analysis was performed between actual canopy temperature and extracted canopy temperature to calibrate the accuracy of extracted temperature from thermal imagery.【Results】 Canny edge detection algorithm eliminated soil background and extracted canopy image with higher accuracy than Otsu algorithm(91.90%>82.52%、92.76%>80.60%),which reached the best effect.The canopy temperature histograms constructed by Otsu algorithm and Canny edge detection algorithm after removing soil background are skewed,but the canopy temperature histograms constructed by Canny edge detection algorithm after removing soil background were smoother and less noisy than Otsu algorithm,and the average canopy temperature of Canny edge detection algorithm in two years was the lowest(29.95,30.54℃),with the smallest difference from the measured temperature(2.78,3.43℃).Correlation analysis showed that the extracted canopy temperature based on Canny edge detection algorithm had the highest correlation with the measured temperature(r=0.94,0.95) and the lowest RMSE(1.59,1.43℃),where the 1% temperature information at both ends of the temperature histogram of Canny edge detection algorithm was dislogded.【Conclusion】 The Canny edge detection algorithm improves the precision of cotton canopy temperature extraction from UAV thermal infrared images,and the optimization of 1% temperature at both ends of the temperature histogram is helpful to improve the precision of cotton canopy temperature extraction.

Extraction of total flavonoids from green cotton fiber by ultrasonic-based response surface optimization
CHEN Pei, BAO Junxiu, WANG Fei, TANG Shouwu, LIU Haifeng, LI Hongbin
2024, 61(3): 576-583.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.006
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【Objective】 This study is to optimize ultrasonic extraction conditions of total flavonoids in NGC fibers,in the hope of providing the basis for reasonable utilization and identification of NGC fibers.【Methods】 The NGC fibers were used as raw materials and were utilized for total flavonoids extract by ultrasonic cavitation effect to accelerate the dissolution of flavonoids in ethanol,to optimize the experimental conditions with Box-Benhnken center combination principle and response surface design.【Results】 The optimal extraction conditions were as follows:solid-liquid ratio of 1∶50 g/mL,ethanol concentration of 50%,and extraction time of 50 min.Under these conditions,the average yield of total flavonoids was 5.25%,which was the best condition for the extraction of total flavonoids from NGC fibers by ultrasonic method.【Conclusion】 The optimal condition Parameter for ultrasonic extraction of total flavonoids from green cotton fibers is a liquid to material ratio of 1∶50 g/mL,ethanol concentration 50%,extraction time 50 min,obtaining an average total flavonoid yield of 5.25%.

Identification of disease resistance of Xinjiang wheat based on KASP technology
GAO Xin, SHI Jia, WANG Chunsheng, WANG Zhong, LI Jianfeng, LI Ailing, FAN Zheru, ZHANG Yueqiang
2024, 61(3): 584-590.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.007
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【Objective】 This study aims to identify the genes related to disease resistance of Xinjiang wheat varieties(lines) and provide materials for genetic improvement of wheat breeding.【Methods】 In the present study,KASP technology was used to detect the genes related to disease resistance in 183 Xinjiang wheat varieties(lines).【Results】 The results showed that 99 varieties had the leaf rust resistance gene Lr46 with a frequency of 54.10%,64 varieties had the leaf rust resistance gene Lr14a with a frequency of 34.97%,3 varieties had the leaf rust resistance gene Lr68,no variety had the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 and yellow rust resistance gene Yr15.The distribution frequency of resistance genes in Xinjiang wheat varieties(lines) was low with a frequency of about 26.8%.【Conclusion】 The 146 selected materials could be used as resistance materials for wheat breeding of long term rust resistance in Xinjiang.

Salt tolerance screening and fertility performance of rice varieties in saline areas of Xinjiang
KANG Mintai, DU Xiaojing, ZHANG Yanhong, CHEN Yuhuan, WEN Xiaorong, TANG Fusen, ZHAO Zhiqiang, YUAN Jie, WANG Fengbin
2024, 61(3): 591-598.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.008
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【Objective】 To explore the salt tolerance of different rice varieties and screen out rrice varieties that would be suitable for cultivation in saline areas of Xinjiang.【Methods】 Studies on the effects of different salt concentration stress on agronomic traits and yield of newly selected rice varieties were conducted for two consecutive years throughout the reproductive period.【Results】 Using treatment C100(2021) and treatment C120(2022) as identification criteria, Xin Japonica 14,Xin Japonica Xiang 3 and Xin Japonica Xiang 5 were "very strong" salt tolereties varieties; Xin Japonica 6,14GY44-5-1-7,Xin Japonica 12 and Xin Japonica Xiang 2 were "strong" salt tolereties varieties; New Japonica 8,New Rice 11,15GY65-3-2-1,New Japonica 11,Akita Komachi,New Rice 36,Yanfeng 47,12GY11-5-4-3-1-1,New Japonica 4,16GY54-2-3-1,New Japonica 9 were "stronger" salt tolereties varieties;Xin Japonica 10,Xin Japonica 13,15GY114-2-5-3-10,Xin Japonica Salt 02 and 15GY114-2-5-3 were "medium" salt tolereties varieties; 9HR156,Xin Japonica 18 and Koshihikari were "weaker" salt tolereties varieties; 03GY28-1-10-2-2-1 were "weak" salt tolereties varieties.【Conclusion】 The results showed that the seedling survival rate,SPAD value and plant height of different rice varieties showed a decreasing trend with the increase of salt concentration in each reproductive period; The main spike length,main spike seed setting rate,1,000-grain weight,and yield per plant of various rice varieties at maturity stage showed a decreasing trend with the increase of salt concentration,while excessive salt concentration would cause seedling death; Salinity tolerance of different rice varieties differed under the same salt concentration treatment.Three varieties with "very strong" salt tolerance were selected;Four varieties with "strong" salt tolerance;Eleven varieties with "stronger" salt tolerance;Five varieties with "medium" salt tolerance;Three varieties with "weaker" salt tolerance;One variety with "weak" salt tolerance.

Horticultural Special Local Products
Growth,yield and quality of muskmelon in fertilization control facilities
LIANG Qigan, ZHANG Hao, HU Guozhi, CHEN Jihao, FENG Tongxin, CAO Qing, WANG Min, FU Xiaofa, YAN Miao, GAO Qiang, ZHANG Xuejun, ZHOU Bo, WANG Haojie
2024, 61(3): 599-606.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.009
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【Objective】 To simplify fertilization and study the effect of long-acting fertilizer on the growth,yield and quality of muskmelon under the conditions of protected cultivation in Hainan.【Methods】 With the melon "Nasmi" as the test material,the experiment set up 5 treatments including no fertilization(CK),long-term fertilizer(K1),long-term fertilizer(K2),long-term fertilizer(K3) and conventional fertilizer(CF).Under the condition of protected cultivation,the long-acting fertilizer of Prolete(17-17-17) ≥ 51% was applied to investigate the agronomic growth index of crops at the melon extension stage,flowering and fruit stage and mature stage,and then to measure the yield and quality of melon at the mature stage,and measure the soil nutrients and the nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium content of each organ of the plant.【Results】 Among the five fertilization treatments,the yield and fruit cracking rate of CF treatment were higher than those of other treatments,and the quality of CF and K1 treatment was higher than those of other treatments.The accumulation of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium in muskmelon plants under different treatments of long-acting fertilizer was lower than those under CF treatment.【Conclusion】 According to the yield,fruit cracking rate and quality characteristics,the treatment of long-acting fertilizer (K1) can ensure the normal growth of muskmelon in the facility to achieve higher commercial yield and quality.

Physiological and biochemical characteristics of dominant lactic acid bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria in sunflower By-Products
LI Xiao, CHEN Yongcheng, HUANG Rongzheng, XU Pingzhu, ZHANG Fanfan, MA Chunhui
2024, 61(3): 607-614.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.010
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【Objective】 This study aims to provide a basis for fermented feeds by sunflower by-products.【Methods】 The dominant lactic acid bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria attached to the surface of sunflower by-products were isolated,extracted and identified,and the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the dominant bacteria were analyzed.【Results】 3 strains of lactic acid bacteria and 4 strains of cellulolytic bacteria were isolated.The 3 strains of lactic acid bacteria obtained were Enterococcus mundtii.Among the 4 strains of cellulolytic bacteria,strains Z2 and Z13 were Bacillus velezensis,X14 was Bacillus aryabhattai,and X4 was Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.3 strains of lactic acid bacteria grew well under the conditions of 4,10,30 and 45℃,3% and 6.5% NaCl,grew at pH 3.5-9,and did not grow at pH3; among the 4 strains of cellulolytic bacteria,the ratio of transparent circle diameter(D)/colony diameter(d) and enzyme activity in order of size were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens > Bacillus velezensis > Bacillus aryabhattai.【Conclusion】 Enterococcus mundtii has strong salt tolerance and a wide range of temperature adaptation,but its acid-producing ability is significantly weaker than that of Lactobacillus plantarum.In the actual weight loss rate of the product,the effect of inoculation with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is the best.

Effects of 2,4-epibrassinolide on growth and related genes expression of watermelon seedlings under drought Stress
ZHANG Wei, YANG Guohui, YU Hui
2024, 61(3): 615-622.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.011
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【Objective】 To reveal the effects of exogenous 2,4-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the growth and related gene expression of watermelon seedlings under drought stress,so as to provide a theoretical basis for the study of watermelon drought resistance.【Methods】 Watermelon variety Qihong 1 was taken as the experimental material by using 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) to simulate drought stress,and then,three treatments were set up: CK (clear water),PEG and PEG + EBR,in which the concentration of EBR was 0.01 mg/L.Finally,the biomass,photosynthesis index,chlorophyll content,antioxidant enzyme activity and expression of related genes of watermelon seedlings after different treatments were detected.【Results】 Spraying exogenous EBR could alleviate the inhibition and damage of drought stress on the growth and development of watermelon seedlings and also activate EBR signal transduction pathway and improve the drought tolerance of watermelon seedlings by increasing the expression of response genes.Compared with PEG stress,the plant height,root length,aboveground fresh weight and underground fresh weight of watermelon seedlings sprayed with exogenous EBR increased by 2.41%,36.76%,1.88% and 3.42% respectively.Moreover,it also enhances various indicators of photosynthesis and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (POD and SOD).The expression of key response genes BRI1,BIN2,BES1 and DWF4 of Brassinolide (BRS) signal transduction pathway also changed to varying degrees,and the expression of drought related genes CDSP32 and MYB101 also changed significantly.【Conclusion】 Exogenous EBR can effectively alleviate the damage caused by drought stress to watermelon seedlings,thus improving the drought resistance of watermelon seedlings.

Study on extraction and antioxidant activity of polyphenols from Armeniaca vulgaris Lam.during physiological fruit-falling period
LI Shuo, Nigeerreyi Yadikaer, ZHU Jinfang, FENG Zuoshan, DENG Shusheng
2024, 61(3): 623-631.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.012
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【Objective】 In this study,the extraction process of polyphenols from Armeniaca vulgaris Lam.during physiological fruit-falling period was optimized and the antioxidant activity of the polyphenol extract was analyzed.【Methods】 On the basis of single factor experiments,response surface method was used to determine the optimum process.The antioxidant activity in vitro was assayed with spectrophotometric method.【Results】 the suitable extraction conditions were ethanol volume fraction 70%,solid-liquid ratio 1∶21,extraction time 34 minute and temperature 60℃.Under these conditions,the polyphenol extraction yield was 12.50 mg/g.The relative standard deviation of the proved experiment was 1.31% compared with the predicted value,which indicated the regression model was suitable for the polyphenol extraction from A.vulgaris.during physiological fruit-falling period.The IC50 of scavenging the free radicals of ABTS+,DPPH, O 2 -were 63.55,55.84,103.00 μg/mL respectively.The results indicated that the ability of the polyphenol extraction to scavenge free radicals in the order was DPPH>ABTS+> O 2 -.There is slightly lower scavenging ability of NO2-.【Conclusion】 The findings would lays the foundation for the development and utilization of A.vulgaris.during physiological fruit-falling period in anti-free radical oxidation functional food.

Genetic properties of interspecific crosses in pepper
ZHANG Guoru, TANG Yaping, SHI Linyuan, YUAN Lei, ZHANG Yong, YANG Shengbao
2024, 61(3): 632-641.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.013
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【Objective】 Screen high-quality pepper,this study will take different cultivated pepper as the research object,through interspecific hybridization,determine the main fruit traits of F1 generation,analyze the genetic characteristics of main fruit traits in the hope of providing a reference for future cross breeding and germplasm resource improvement.【Methods】 Improve the efficiency of pepper cross breeding,F1 was obtained through interspecific hybridization.The success rate of interspecific hybridization was detected by Indel molecular marker technology.The content of capsaicin in the fruit was determined by HPLC and the color value was detected by UV spectrophotometer.Afterwards,the genetic diversity and correlation of all pepper fruit traits and quality traits were analyzed by SPSS and Origin 2019 software.【Results】 The authenticity of F1 hybrids among 28 pepper resources was identified by using Indel markers.The results showed that all the annuals could successfully cross with devil pepper(ZL-280) and shrub pepper(HY-1),and the genetic characteristics of the main fruit traits showed super dominance effect,additive effect and dominant effect.However,it failed to cross with bird pepper(X-260),which might be due to interspecific hybridization obstacles.【Conclusion】 From this study,it can be concluded that there are certain hybridization characteristics in different interspecific hybridization of pepper.Annual pepper can be successfully crossed with devil pepper and shrub pepper,and the variation range of main fruit characters of hybrid offspring is large.

Spatial and temporal variation of nutritional quality and its characteristics of wolfberry
NIE Fang, JU Yanjun, CHEN Zhuoya, LIU Min, LIU Hejiang, LIU Zhihu, KAI Jianrong, GOU Chunlin, ZHAO Duoyong
2024, 61(3): 642-651.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.014
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【Objective】 The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatio-temporal variation,characteristics,and its influencing factors of the quality of wolfberry,so as to provide evidence for excellent variety breeding,quality improvement,brand building and standardized production of the fruit.【Methods】 224 fruit samples were collected from Xinjiang,Ningxia and Gansu Province for three consecutive years(2020-2022) and then the contents of polysaccharide,total flavone and 16 kinds of amino acids were determined.Afterwards,the spatio-temporal variation of wolfberry quality under geographical origin,interyear,variety and their interaction were analyzed.Finally,combined with variance analysis,principal component analysis(PCA) and other methods were applied to screen the feature quality indicators and clarify the influence of each factor on the feature quality indicators.【Results】 The nutritional quality of wolfberry fruit in different regions showed significant difference between years(P < 0.05),and was significantly correlated with wolfberry varieties(P < 0.05).The content of wolfberry polysaccharide was mainly affected by the origin factors,and the variation contribution rate was 6.79%.The total flavonoids of wolfberry were mainly affected by interannual factors,and the variation contribution rate was 51.84%.The contents of polysaccharides and total flavonoids in Xinjiang were significantly higher than those in the other two producing areas(P < 0.05).The high quality variety was Ningqi No.1.In contrast,the content of total flavonoids and polysaccharide in Gansu wolfberry was significantly lower than that in Xinjiang(P < 0.05).Secondly,variety and year were the main factors affecting the total amino acids of wolfberry,and the variation contribution rates were 21.40% and 15.99%,respectively.The high-quality amino acid producing area was Ningxia,and the high-quality variety was Ningqi 5.【Conclusion】 The same varieties of wolfberry introduced in Ningxia will show different characteristics in different places of cultivation.Wolfberry in Xinjiang showed relatively high polysaccharides and total flavonoids,Ningxia showed relatively high total amino acids,and Gansu showed relatively low polysaccharides and total flavonoids.

Analysis of turnip nutrient at different altitudes
LI Xiaojuan, ZHAO Wenju, GA Sang, DENG Changrong, ZHAO Mengliang, REN Yanjing
2024, 61(3): 652-664.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.015
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【Objective】 To clarify the influence of different altitudes on the nutrients contained in turnips and determine the best suitable growing areas for turnips,cultivation,this study provides the important basis for selecting the best suitable growing area and improving the resource utilization rate for turnip planting in the future.【Methods】 In this study,13 different sources turnips were selected as test materials,the effects of turnip cultivation on their nutritional content were compared and analyzed in three different altitude areas:Xining City,Qinghai province(2,261 meters above sea level,treated by A),Guinan Conty,Tibetan Autonomoas prefecture,Hainan Province(3,100 meters above sea level,treated by B),and Xiaosumang Township,Yushu City,Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture,Qinghai Province(3,750 meters above sea level,treated with C).【Results】 The results showed that with the increase of altitude,the soluble protein content,total sugar content,nitrite content increased,nitrate content decreased,nitrate nitrogen content decreased,and water content decreased,while altitude had no significant effect on the ascorbic acid content,total antioxidant capacity and crude fiber content of turnip,which showed that under B treatment,the ascorbic acid content was higher than that in the other two regions,the total antioxidant capacity was stronger,and the crude fiber content was relatively high.Correlation analysis showed that altitude was significantly positively correlated with total sugar and nitrite content,while negatively correlated with soluble sugar and nitrate nitrogen content.Soil physical and chemical properties were correlated with the contents of soluble protein,soluble sugar,total sugar,nitrate nitrogen and nitrite.【Conclusion】 There are significant differences in the nutrient content of turnips at different altitudes.Four materials(1,402,W30,Changdu and Yushu turnips) showed better nutrient content at 2,261 and 3,100 meters above sea level,and one material(W22) showed better nutrient content at 3,750 meters above sea level.Four of the nine nutritional indicators were significantly correlated with altitude; Soil physical and chemical properties were correlated with nutrient content.

Plant Protection·Microbes
Indoor toxicity determination and field efficacy trials of several pesticides against Grapholita molesta in walnut production areas of Hotan County
WEI Yang, CHEN Guoxiang, Adili Sattar, Mahamatopiti Tusun, TIAN Guangyu
2024, 61(3): 665-671.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.016
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【Objective】 In order to screen out pesticides with strong protection and extermination against pear psyllid based on scientific guidance for production.【Methods】 In this experiment,the indoor toxicity and field efficacy of five pesticides against pear psyllid were determined by bioassay and spray method respectively.【Results】 The experiment showed that the toxicity of 5% emamectin benzoate-lufenuron to the 3rd instar larvae of pear borer was the highest,and its LC50 value was 4.12 mg/L,followed by 10% lambda-cyhalothrin,14% chlorpyrifos-permethrin and 10% chlorantraniliprole.The LC50 values were 8.23,15.14 and 16.07 mg/L;25% emamectin benzoate-chlorobenzuron was the lowest toxic with an LC50 value of 40.65 mg/L; while 10% chlorantraniliprole 1,000 times and 5% emamectin benzoate-lufenuron 2,000 times were the most effective in killing the larvae,and the corrected mortality rate of larvae reached more than 85% after 24 h and 100% at 72 h.10% chlorantraniliprole and 5% emamectin benzoate-lufenuron had the best rapid efficacy,and the efficacy of field spraying reached more than 60% after 1 d.The efficacy was 87.72% and 82.46% respectively at 5 d after application,which was significantly higher than other pesticides.【Conclusion】 In conclusion,10% chlorantraniliprole and 5% emamectin benzoate-lufenuron have good control effect on pear small heartworm larvae in peach planting area in Hotan County.

Effects of two adjuvants on bactericide reduction and efficacy enhancing in chemical prevention and control of walnut cancer disease
WANG Wenyao, SHI Wanbin, LU Yi, Tuersuntuoheti Abudula, Yeersheng Haerken, MA Rong
2024, 61(3): 672-680.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.017
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【Objective】 To clarify the occurrence rule of walnut cancer disease and reduce the concentration of chemical pesticides in the prevention and control process.【Methods】 A survey of walnut cancer disease was carried out in 6 sample plots in Buzhake Township,Hetan County,Hetan,prefecture Xinjiang from April to August 2022 through five-point sampling method.Two chemical agents optimized in the early stage:40% Tebuconazole & Prochloraz EW and 1.6% benziothiazolinone PF,and two adjuvants:noposion Toucui bark penetrant and SK EnSpray 99 were applied in 10 different treatments.After application,the recurrence and healing of the spots were observed,and the efficacy prevention,the correction anti-effect and the mean healing width were calculated.【Results】 The results showed that there were two peak periods of walnut cancer disease in Buzhake Township,Hotan County,Xinjiang in May and August in 2022.The pathogen invaded mainly through the sawing edge,accounting for 44.1% of the total number of spots.The number of spots on the sunny side was the most.The control effect of 40% Tebuconazole & Prochloraz EW reduced by 30%(1,428 times of solution)+ Toucui 100 times of solution and 1.6% benziothiazolinone PF reduced by 50%(400 times of solution) + Toucui 100 times of solution were better,80% and 86.7%,respectively.【Conclusion】 The optimal combination of the two groups of agents is beneficial to reduce the dosage of chemical agents,decrease the cost of prevention and control,and reduce the pollution to the environment.

Population structure analysis of pathogen of pear valsa canker in Aral area of Xinjiang
LI TANG, LI Chunyan, MENG Ziwei, LI Yapeng, ZHANG Wangbin
2024, 61(3): 681-689.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.018
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【Objective】 The purpose of this study is to investigate the population classification and difference by 6 pairs of gene sequences of the pathogens from Aral City,Ist Oivision,Xinjiang Production and Constraction Corps.【Methods】 Typical disease samples were collected for purified pathogens by Koch postulates.The total DNA of pathogens was extracted following a standard cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB) method,subsequently,the ITS,β-tubulin,EF-1α,ACT,LSU,and RBP2 genes were conducted by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing.【Results】 Pathogenic species of korla pear rot in mixed gardens around Alar Valsa mali var.pyri(V.ambiensValsa mali ).Species differences are related ro geographical tocation.There are significant differences in pear rot disease isolates between domestic and foreign and foreign countries.EF-1α、ACT、LSU、RBP2 is more able to reflect interspecific differences, and phylogenetic tree has multiple branches,resulting in interspecific differences.【Conclusion】 The results showed that Valsa mali var.pyri and Valsa sordida were the main diseases in Korla pear.It was clear that the difference existed between the species and population distribution of canker disease pathogen in Korl pear.The main shelterbelt such as poplar is the most common windbreak in Southern Xinjiang,maybe there is a cross infection of fruit trees and wood trees.

Identification of new pathogens of alfalfa anthracnose (Colletotrichum liriopes) and preliminary study on biological characteristics
LIU Feng, Zulipiye Anwaier, LI Kemei, Tuolunbate Biyahong
2024, 61(3): 690-698.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.019
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【Objective】 This project aims to isolate an anthrax strain from alfalfa with the symptoms of anthracnose,which would be slightly different from the previously reported Colletotrichum trifolii and C.americae borealis in morphology in order to clarify the pathogenicity,taxonomic status and biological characteristics of this strain through a series of studies.【Methods】 Anthrax strain was obtained by tissue isolation,and its pathogenicity was proved by Koch's rule and morphological observation combined with PCR amplification of polygene fragments was used to identify the pathogenic bacteria.Meanwhile,the effects of different culture media,carbon source,nitrogen source,temperature,pH value and light on the colony growth of anthrax strain were determined.【Results】 A new pathogenic anthrax strain was isolated from alfalfa,and identified as Colletotrichum liriopes.The strain could grow under the conditions of 5-35℃ and pH 4-11,and most of the test medium,nitrogen source and carbon source conditions.【Conclusion】 C.liriopes can infect alfalfa and cause anthracnose.The optimum growth temperature of C.liriopes is 28℃,the optimum nitrogen source and carbon source are yeast and soluble starch respectively,the optimum pH is 7,the lethal temperature of mycelium is 61℃,and the alternation of light and dark for 12 h is favorable to the growth of the colony.

Numerical analysis of soil and vegetation nutrient characteristics in the initial year of returning farmland in the core area of Tarim River Populus euphratica forest
ZHANG You, LIU Maoxiu, SHI Junhui, WANG Xinying, Aijier Abula, ZHANG Yan
2024, 61(3): 699-707.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.020
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【Objective】 To preliminarily study the nutrient characteristics of soil and vegetation in the initial year of the abandoned land in the core area of Populus euphratica public welfare forest in the middle and lower reaches of the Tahe River in the hope of providing basic data support for the ecological restoration of the abandoned land in the area.【Methods】 The soil and vegetation in the core area of Populus euphratica forest in the middle and lower reaches of the Tahe River were taken as the research object in the initial year of returning farmland.The "S" shaped distribution method,field standard whole tree harvesting method,and multi-point mixing method were used to collect vegetation and soil samples,and indoor analysis methods were used to measure vegetation and soil nutrients.【Results】 (1)The soil nutrient content and the accumulation of vegetation nutrient components were concentrated in Zone IV and Zone V.(2)At the vertical depth of the soil,nutrients were concentrated in the surface soil,and as the soil depth increased,the soil nutrient content decreased in sequence.However,at the 60-100 cm soil layer,there was a slight increase.There was significant difference in soil nutrient content between different soil layers and depths(P<0.05).(3)And there were significant differences in the total N,total P,total K,and organic carbon content of residual cotton(cotton stalks,roots) and herbaceous plants in different fields(P<0.05).【Conclusion】 This study indicates that the initial annual soil nutrient content of the abandoned land in the core area of the Populus euphratica forest nature reserve is high,which is conducive to the occurrence and development of desert vegetation communities and improve the community succession rate,and it is of great significance for the vegetation restoration and environmental changes in the abandoned land of the Populus euphratica forest in Tahe,as well as the relationship between ecological transition zone vegetation restoration and regional ecological stability.

Analysis of the bacterial communities structure and diversty of the Tarim River in different habitats
YAO Yuxiang, WANG Guoqiang, WANG Ke, YI Sha, YANG Xinya, LUO Xioaxia
2024, 61(3): 708-718.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.021
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【Objective】 Analysis of the bacterial communities structure and diversty of the Tarim River in different habitats.【Methods】 The culture-free and cultivable methods were used in this study to explore the bacterial community structure and diversity of Tarim River,and also identified a potential new species by using the polyphasic taxonomy method.【Results】 There were significantly difference of bacterial community between the original habitat and the artificially developed habitat.There was lower alpha diversity of the artificially developed habitat than the original habitat,and it had multiple difference of the beta diversity among the different habits.Based on the cultivable methods,the Proteobacteria and Actinomycota were dominant bacterial groups in these habitats.According to the polyphasic taxonomy method,a potential new species was identified.【Conclusion】 There are multiple microbial resources in different habitats of the Tarim River.The bacterial community structure has been affected by human activities.

Effects of molasses and Lactobacillus plantarum on silage quality,microbial quantity and rumen degradation rate of hop branches and leaves
XIAN Ouyang, LI Xiao, CHEN Yongcheng, WANG Ting, WANG Xuze, ZHANG Fanfan, MA Chunhui
2024, 61(3): 719-726.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.022
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【Objective】 Effects of molasses and Lactobacillus plantarum on silage quality,microbial quantity and rumen degradation rate of hop branches and leaves.【Methods】 In this experiment,hop branches and leaves were used as raw materials to study the effects of adding molasses and Lactobacillus plantarum on fermentation characteristics of hop branches and leaves silage and rumen degradation rate of sheep.The treatments were no additive treatment(CK treatment),5% molasses(Molasses,M0 treatment),5% molasses+105 CFU/g FM Lactobacillus plantarum combination(Molasses and Lactobacillus plantarum,M1 treatment).After 90 days of storage at room temperature(19-23℃),the sensory quality was evaluated,the silage quality and microbial quantity were analyzed,and after that,the rumen degradation rate was determined.【Results】 (1) The sensory quality evaluation of M0 and M1 treatments was better than that of the control treatment.The DM of M1 treatment was significantly higher than that of CK and M0 treatments(P<0.05).The CP of M1 treatment was significantly higher than that of CK treatment(P<0.05).The NDF of M1 treatment was significantly lower than that of CK and M0 treatments(P<0.05).The ADF of M0 and M1 treatments was significantly lower than that of CK treatment(P<0.05).The LA of M1 treatment was significantly higher than that of CK and M0 treatments(P<0.05).The AA of M1 treatment was significantly higher than that of CK treatment(P<0.05).The pH and NH3-N / TN of M0 and M1 treatments were significantly lower than those of CK treatment(P<0.05).(2) The lactic acid bacteria of M1 treatment was significantly higher than that of CK and M0 treatment(P<0.05),and the yeast of M0 and M1 treatment was significantly lower than that of CK treatment(P<0.05).(3) At 12 h of rumen degradation,there was no significant difference in DMD among the treatments.The OMD,ADFD and NDFD of M0 and M1 treatments were significantly higher than those of CK treatment(P<0.05).At 24 h of rumen degradation,DMD of M1 treatment was significantly higher than that of CK treatment,OMD,ADFD and NDFD of M0 and M1 treatments were significantly higher than those of CK treatment(P<0.05).At 48 h of rumen degradation,DMD and ADFD of M1 treatment were significantly higher than those of CK and M0 treatments(P<0.05),OMD and DNFD of M0 and M1 treatments were significantly higher than those of CK treatment(P<0.05).【Conclusion】 Molasses and Lactobacillus plantarum plays a good synergistic effect in the fermentation of hop branches and leaves silage,can effectively improve the quality of silage,inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms during hop branches and leaves silage,and promote the activity of rumen microorganisms.

Study on the process of aerobic - anaerobic coupling for dairy farm sewage
LI Yifan, GONG Jiangping, GAO Yan, Zeng Jun, HUO Xiangdong, LI Fengming, LIU Jiancheng
2024, 61(3): 727-733.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.023
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【Objective】 To screen the microorganism that degrades the dariy manure sewage in the hope of providing the scientific basis for the dairy manure treatment.【Methods】 The microbial strains that were reported using to degrade sewage and determine the values of COD(chemical oxygen demand),BOD5 (biological oxygen demang 5 days),TP(total phosphorus)and pH after processing the dairy farm sewage by microorganisms were selected.【Results】 Three strains of aerobic bacteria were screened from the reported beneficial microorganisms that could be used for the treatment of dairy farm sewage,which were Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginous;There were 3 strains of anaerobes,including Rhodopseudomonas palustris,Pseudomonas fluorescens and Seratia marcescens.The best technological conditions for the treatment of dairy farm sewage by the aerobic - anaerobic coupling method were established:5% inoculum,0.05 m3/h aeration(2 h aeration every 10 h),30℃ and 96 h treatment time.【Conclusion】 The removal rate of COD, BOD5 and TP in the dairy farm sewage is 91.38%,96.82% and 82.6%, respectively,and the effluent pH is 7.2-7.6,which conforms to the national standard for farmland irrigation water.

Animal Husbandry Veterinarian·Agricultural Eeconomy
Effects of different gene editing types on traits of FGF5 gene-edited sheep wool
YUE Chenggung, LI Zhonghui, LIU Chenxi, HE Sangang, MA Haiye, LIU Xuan, LI Jingping, LI Wenrong
2024, 61(3): 734-741.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.024
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【Objective】 To study the effects of different gene editing types on wool traits in FGF5 gene-edited fine-wool sheep in the hope of providing a theoretical basis for subsequent studies on the genetic parameters of wool traits in gene-edited fine-wool sheep.【Methods】 In this study,data on traits such as wool length,wool straight length,wool fiber diameter and greasy fleece weight from 181 FGF5-year-old gene-edited fine-wood sheep from the sheep breeding base of Xinjiang Academy of Animal Sciences were collected for analysis.【Results】 The wool length of FGF5 gene editing fine wool sheep was 10.49 cm with a coefficient variation of 11.82%.Wool length and greasy fleece weight of FGF5-InDel and FGF5-HDR gene-edited fine-wool were extremely significant higher than that of the wild type(P<0.01).The wool length and wool straight length of -28 bp or -26 bp,-2 bp and replacement(c.61 C>T) were extremely significant longer than that of the wild type(P<0.01),and the greasy fleece weight at -28 bp or -26 bp was significantly higher than that of the wild type(P<0.05).The wool length and wool straight length of double-allele-edited and single-allele-edited mutations of the -28 bp genotype had extremely significantly longer than those of thewild type(P<0.01).【Conclusion】 Different gene editing types of FGF5 gene editing in fine wool sheep significantly increase the wool length and greasy fleece weight,which can be used to form a core population of gene-edited sheep with outstanding phenotypic traits,promote the selection and expansion of FGF5 gene-edited sheep.

Effect of endurance exercise on blood physiological indicators in the Yili horse
CHANG Xiaokang, ZENG Yaqi, MENG jun, WANG Jianwen, ZHANG Yaang, LI Linling, DENG Haifeng, ZHENG Wenxiang, YAO Xinkui, ZHOU Jing
2024, 61(3): 742-748.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.025
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【Objective】 To study the effect of 26 km endurance racing on the blood physiological indices of adult Yili horses in the hope of providng data to support the breeding and selection of endurance Yili horses in China.【Methods】 Twelve adult stallions were selected from the top six and bottom six of the 207 horses that participated in the 26 km long-distance endurance race,with the top six defined as the excellent group(N=6) and the bottom six as the average group(N=6).Blood tests were performed before and immediately after the 26 km endurance race for white blood cell count(WBC),lymphocyte count(Lym),monocyte count(Mon),neutrophil count(Neu),lymphocyte percentage(Lym%),monocyte percentage(Mon%),neutrophil percentage(Neu%),red blood cell count(RBC),haemoglobin concentration(HGB),erythrocyte specific volume(HCT),mean erythrocyte volume(MCV),mean erythrocyte haemoglobin content(MCH),mean erythrocyte haemoglobin concentration(MCHC),platelet count(PLT),platelet pressure volume(PCT%) and other 15 blood physiological indexes to analyse the differences in blood physiological indexes before and after the endurance race of Yili horses with different endurance performance.【Results】 The excellent group showed a significant decrease(P<0.05) in Lym,Lym% and Mon%,while Neu%,RBC,HGB and HCT% were significantly increased(P<0.05) after the 26 km endurance race; the ordinary group showed a significant increase(P<0.05) in WBC,Neu,Mon,Neu% and PCT%,while Lym,Lym% and Mon% were significantly increased(P<0.05) after the race.The WBC,Neu,Mon,Neu% and PCT% in the blood of the general group were significantly higher(P<0.05),while the Lym,Lym% and Mon% were significantly lower(P<0.05); the WBC,Neu,Mon in the blood of the excellent group were significantly lower(P<0.05),while the RBC,HGB and HCT% were significantly higher(P<0.05).【Conclusion】 The horses in the excellent group had less damage to the exercise load and higher aerobic capacity and exercise adaptability than those in the normal groups during the 26 km endurance race.

Effects of walking horse with different intensities on performance and blood gas index of Yili Horse in 900 m test race
LIU Ye, WANG Tongliang, MENG Jun, ZENG Yaqi, WANG Jianwen, HENG Shibing, WANG Peiming, YAO Xinkui, FAN Zhiwei
2024, 61(3): 749-756.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.026
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【Objective】 The performance of Yili mare in 900 m speed race was monitored by using a horse walker with different intensities in the hope of providing theoretical basis for determining the best walking degree of Yili mare before the competition.【Methods】 Eight 2-year-old speed Yili mares were selected to walk for 15,30,45 and 60 min at 2,3 and 4 m/s respectively,with a total of 12 walking intensities.After each walk,a 900 m speed race was conducted,and the differences of blood gas indexes and speed race results were analyzed.【Results】 Among the 12 groups,the performance of 900 m distance race in group B was significantly higher than that in group VIII and group VIII(P<0.05).Glu concentration in group Ⅸ was significantly higher than that in group Ⅰ and Ⅹ(P<0.01),and significantly higher than that in group Ⅲ,Ⅶ and Ⅻ(P<0.05).Hb concentration in group Ⅰ and Ⅸ was significantly higher than that in group Ⅲ(P<0.01) and group Ⅳ(P<0.05).The concentration of Hct in group Ⅸ was significantly higher than that in group Ⅲ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ,Ⅶ and Ⅻ(P<0.05).The concentration of PvO2 in group Ⅸ was significantly higher than that in groups I,II,III and IV(P<0.01) and significantly higher than that in group Ⅶ(P<0.05).The concentration of SvO2 in group Ⅸ was significantly higher than that in group I(P<0.01),the pH concentration in groups Ⅵ and Ⅶ was significantly higher than that in groups Ⅰ,Ⅸ and Ⅹ(P<0.05),and the pH concentration in group Ⅴ was significantly higher than that in groups Ⅸ and Ⅹ(P<0.05).Lac concentration in group Ⅰ was significantly higher than that in groups Ⅴ,Ⅵ,Ⅶ,Ⅷ,Ⅹ and Ⅺ(P<0.01),and significantly higher than that in groups Ⅸ and Ⅻ(P<0.05).The concentration of BE(ecf) in group Ⅳ was significantly higher than that in group Ⅴ and Ⅸ(P<0.01),and significantly higher than that in groups Ⅵ,Ⅹ and Ⅻ(P<0.05).The concentration of BE(b) in group Ⅳ was significantly higher than that in groups Ⅴ,Ⅸ and Ⅹ(P<0.01).【Conclusion】 Under the experimental conditions,the horses in the 900 m speed race in Yili Horse warmed up at the level of walking in Group Ⅸ(4 m/s 15 min),the blood glucose concentration increases,and the oxygen carrying capacity of the body is enhanced,which effectively can improve the level of subsequent races.

Effect of conditioning training on blood-gas indexes in 2,000 m trot race in Yili horses
YANG Liping, WANG Chuankun, SHANG Tingting, ZENG Yaqi, WANG Jianwen, NUO Lufu, MA Kangwei, YAO Xinkui, MENG Jun
2024, 61(3): 757-765.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.027
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【Objective】 The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of conditioning training on the blood gas indexes of 2,000 m trot race horses in Yili and to provide data reference for the development of scientific conditioning training programs.【Methods】 Twelve healthy Yili horses(2 years old) without special trot training were selected for special trot training for a period of 12 weeks,and a trotter was organized 4 weeks during the training period to record the race results.【Results】 The competition performance of the horses in the middle and post training periods was extremely significantly lower(P<0.01) than that in the early training period those in the excellent and regular groups.pH was significantly lower(P<0.05) in the middle training period than that in the early training period.Lactic acid(Lac) in middle training was highly significant higher than that in early training(P<0.01).Na+ middle training was highly significant lower than those in early and post training period(P<0.01).Ca2+ post training was highly significant lower than that in early training(P<0.01) and significantly lower than that in middle training(P<0.05).Cl- post training was significantly lower than that in early training(P<0.05) and middle training was highly significant lower than that in the early training period(P<0.01).Anion gap(AG) was significantly higher than those in late training and in the beginning of training(P<0.05).Glucose(Glu) was highly significantly higher in late training than those in early training and middle training(P<0.01).Creatinine(Crea) was highly significantly higher in middle training than that in the beginning of training and post training(P<0.01).【Conclusion】 The performance,acid-base balance capacity,gas exchange capacity and glucose supply capacity of 2,000 m Yili horses trotter are significantly improved after conditioning training under the present experimental conditions.It is recommended to maintain the ionic level of the organism during training with appropriate electrolyte supplementation.Therefore,blood-gas indexes can be used as a health monitoring tool in equine sports training.

Comparative analysis of application and authorization of new agricultural plant right in Xinjing from 2003-2021
Abdukeyoumu Abudurezike, Gulimila Aikebaier, Palidan Aihaiti, ME Xinhui, MA Yanming, ZHANG Yan, GAO Qiang, XU Lin
2024, 61(3): 766-772.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.028
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【Objective】 Analyze the current situation of application and authorization of new plant varieties in Xinjiang agriculture and make comparisons. 【Methods】 Collect and summarize the data of application and authorization of new plant varieties in Xinjiang from 2003 to 2021, and compare and analyze the changes in the application and authorization quantities of new varieties. 【Results】 By the end of December 2021, the cumulative announced application quantity of new plant varieties in Xinjiang reached 470, and the total announced authorization quantity reached 154, with an authorization application ratio of 0.33. From 2003 to 2021, 718 major crop varieties in Xinjiang were approved for application, including 105 varieties of wheat, accounting for 14.62%; 253 varieties of maize, accounting for 35.24%; 59 varieties of rice, accounting for 8.22%; 259 varieties of cotton, accounting for 36.07%; and 42 varieties of soybeans, accounting for 5.85%. The number of varieties protected by plant breeders' rights is far less than the number of approved varieties. 【Conclusion】 Seed companies and agricultural research institutes are the main institutions for new plant variety applications in Xinjiang. In the period from 2003 to 2021, the combined application quantity of these two accounted for 95.94% of the total applications in Xinjiang. Among them, the application quantity of enterprises was 282, accounting for 60%. In terms of the number of applications for new plant varieties in Xinjiang, it ranks 24th among the 31 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) in the country. In terms of the number of authorizations, it ranks 26th among the 31 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) in the country. And in terms of the number of approvals for major crops, it ranks 21st among the 31 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) in the country.

Analysis regional difference of green agriculture development level in Xinjiang
BAO Yanli, SU Wuzheng, ZHANG Lizhao, LI Qiongshi
2024, 61(3): 773-780.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.03.029
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【Objective】 Research on the development level of green agriculture in Xinjiang and the differences in green agriculture development among different 14 prefectares(cities) in Xinjiang from 2005-2019.【Methods】 Based on the statistical data of green agriculture development in Xinjiang from 2005 to 2019,Entropy method was used to evaluate the development levels of green agriculture in Xinjiang.【Results】 Xinjiang's comprehensive score for green agriculture development in 2019 was increased by 4.28 points from 2005,among which,scores for agricultural economy development was increased by 3.75 points,for resources reduction was decreased by 4.11 points,and for resources environment safety was increased by 4.63 points; In 2019,the comprehensive score for the development of green agriculture in 14 prefectures(cities) in Xinjiang was 10.64 points for Ili Prefectural Government.Followed by comprehensive score for green agriculture development in Altay Administrative District(9.92 points),while the lowest score was the Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture(referred to as Kezhou) (2.95 points).【Conclusion】 The level of green agriculture in Xinjiang is increasing year by year.The agricultural economy and the security of resources and environment are developing well,but resource utilization efficiency is still low,which become the “short slab” of green agriculture development in Xinjiang; On the whole,the development level of green agriculture is at higher level in the northern of Xinjiang,at the medium level in the eastern Xinjiang,at lower level in the southern Xinjiang.There are significant differences in the levels of green agricultural development in various regions of Xinjiang,forming a trend,The overall development level of green agriculture in Xinjiang is high in the north,low in the south,and middle in the east.Significant differences in the development level of green agriculture among different 14 prefectures (cities) in Xinjiang.The development level of green agriculture in Kezhou is relatively lagging behind.