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Crop Genetics and Breeding·Cultivation Physiology·Germplasm Resources
Effects of Different Concentrations of Chemical Topping Agents on Agronomic Traits, Yield and Quality of Cotton
TANG Jiyuan, CHEN Minzhi, YAN Jiangwei, WANG Yunxuan, ZUO Wenqing, TIAN Jingshan, ZHANG Wangfeng
2022, 59(7): 1561-1572.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.001
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【Objective】 To study the effects of DPC+with different concentrations of chemical topping agent on different varieties of cotton in the hope of providing a theoretical basis for the application of cotton chemical topping technology in Xinjiang.【Method】 Three cultivars were used in this experimental, which were Xinluzao 61, Xinluzao 67, Xinluzao 72. And three concentration gradients of chemical topping agents were set, among which the low concentration was 90 g/hm2+60 ml/hm2 (dactyl amine + additive); Medium concentration: 180 g/hm2+120 ml/hm2; High concentration: 270 g/hm2+180 ml/hm2, with no topping and manual topping as control to study the agronomic traits, yield and fiber quality of cotton.【Results】 Compared with no topping, chemical topping effectively controlled the agronomic traits of cotton plants. Under high concentration (270 g/hm2+180 ml/hm2), the plant height increased by 3.0~8.7cm, the number of fruit branches increased by 0.8~1.93, the plant width decreased by 1.4%~3.4%, and the number of internodes of main stem increased by 0.7~1.2 compared with the manual topping. For yield factor and fiber quality, there was no significant difference between each concentration treatment and manual topping treatment. 【Conclusion】 The use of high concentration DPC+ has better topping effect. The use of chemical topping with DPC+ can effectively replace manual topping, and the yield and quality are not reduced.

Effects of Low Temperature Stress in Bud Stage on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Cotton
ZHONG Xinnian, LIANG Qigan, LI Youzhong, ZHAO Jianhua, MA Haixia, LI Zhibo
2022, 59(7): 1573-1581.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.002
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【Objective】 To explore the response law and screen the photosynthetic indexes related to cold tolerance of cotton by analyzing the effects of different low temperature stress on photosynthetic characteristics of different cotton varieties in bud stage so as to provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for identification of cold tolerant resources and breeding of cold tolerant cotton varieties. 【Methods】 Three low temperature gradients (T1 (20/15℃, day / night), T2 (15 / 10℃), T3 (10 / 5℃) and CK (28/20℃) were applied in the bud stage. 【Result】 Net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (GS), transpiration rate (TR) and stomatal limit value (LS) of cotton in bud stage decreased significantly under low temperature stress, intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (CI) decreased first and then increased, and water use efficiency (WUE) increased first and then decreased. 【Conclusion】 The degree of low temperature stress can be judged according to the stomatal conductance (GS), transpiration rate (TR), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (CI) and water use efficiency (WUE). Under T1 stress, the decrease of photosynthetic rate of cotton in bud stage is caused by stomatal limiting factors; under T2 stress, the decrease of photosynthetic rate of cotton in bud stage is mainly caused by stomatal factors first and then by non stomatal factors; under T3 stress, non stomatal factors are the main factors limiting photosynthesis of cotton in bud stage. Low temperature stress inhibits photosynthesis of leaves in bud stage. The higher the stress intensity, the more obvious the inhibition on cotton growth in bud stage and the longer the duration of low temperature treatment, the more obvious the inhibition on cotton growth at bud stage.

Effects of Water and Nitrogen Coupling on Physiological Growth and Yield of Wheat under Drip Irrigation
LIU Guohong, FU Yanbo, BIAN Qingyong, WEI Yayuan, WEI Yanhong, ZHANG Wanxu, ZHU Jinquan
2022, 59(7): 1582-1589.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.003
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【Objective】 To study the effects of water and fertilizer coupling on physiological growth and yield of winter wheat under drip irrigation in southern Xinjiang. 【Method】 Xindong 52 was used as the test material, and the two-factor split zone experiment was designed. Three levels of irrigation treatment were set: W1 (2,241 m3/hm2), W2 (3,486 m3/hm2) and W3 (4,731 m3/hm2). Four levels of fertilization treatment (nitrogen) were set: N0 (0 kg/hm2), N1 (135 kg/hm2), N2 (195 kg/hm2), N3 (255 kg/hm2). The effects of different combinations of water and nitrogen on plant height, leaf area, photosynthetic characteristics (Pn,Tr,Gs,Ci), yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat under drip irrigation were analyzed.【Result】 (1) With the increase of irrigation amount or N amount, the plant height, leaf area, photosynthetic characteristics and yield of Xindong 52 winter wheat increased synchronously.(2) When the irrigation amount was too low (W1 treatment), increasing N fertilizer did not significantly improve the yield and photosynthetic performance; When the irrigation amount was increased to W2 and W3 levels, plant height, leaf area, photosynthetic characteristics and yield showed an obvious trend of increase with the increase of N application rate, which showed a good effect of waterborne fertilizer. (3) Among all treatments, W3N2 (4,731 m3/hm2 irrigation, N1 95 kg/hm2 application) had the highest yield (8,570 kg/hm2), and the corresponding photosynthetic characteristic values also reached the maximum; (4) The yield of W2N2 treatment (3,486 m3/hm2 and 195 kg/hm2) was at the sub-maximum value (8,465 kg/hm2). The photosynthetic characteristic value of W2N2 was not the maximum, but the agricultural utilization rate of N fertilizer reached the maximum (16.69 kg/kg), and the production efficiency of irrigation water also reached the maximum (1.66 kg/m3). (5) Compared with W3N2, the yield of W2N2 decreased by 105kg/hm2 (decreased by 1.2%), but the irrigation amount decreased by 1,245 m3/hm2 (decreased by 26.3%). 【Conclusion】 The technical combination of irrigation water of 3,486 m3/hm2 and nitrogen fertilizer of 195 kg/hm2 can be used as the cost-saving and efficiency-increase production scheme of "Xindong 52" winter wheat.

Research on the Lodging Resistance Characteristics and Heterosis in Different Height Maize Hybrids
PAN Zhiyuan, DUAN Yanyan, CHANG Baoxue, CUI Zhenkun, QI Bingqin, HU Jing, GOU Ling
2022, 59(7): 1590-1597.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.004
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【Objective】 To investigate the variation and heterosis of lodging resistance traits in maize hybrids with different plant heights.【Methods】 In this study, nine maize hybrids of different plant heights and their parents were used as materials, the plant morphology, third internode morphology, rind puncture strength, and the lodging rate was determined. 【Results】 The results showed that with the increase of hybrid maize plant height, the ear height and ear coefficient of maize hybrids increased. The basal internode length became longer and the stalk thickness coefficient became lower. Stalk rind puncture strength became weaker and field lodging rate increased. Correlation analysis showed that stalk rind puncture strength of maize hybrids was significantly and negatively correlated with plant height, ear height and basal internode length. Heterosis analysis showed that maize hybrids had a high heterosis advantage in plant height, high heterosis advantage in long-stalked variety was higher than that in short-stalked variety. The super-mother advantage, mid-parent advantage and hybrid advantage index of ear height all showed an increase with plant height. Both mid-parental and heterosis for basal internode length of maize were higher, and super-mother advantage was higher than super-father advantage, and long-stalked variety were higher than short-stalked variety. 【Conclusion】 The heterosis index of stalk rind puncture strength is stronger, and super-father advantage is greater than super-mother advantage. Therefore, the selection of maize hybrids should focus on the selection of the plant type of the parental inbred lines, and thus can provide a reliable basis for speeding up the selection of high-yield and lodging-resistant varieties.

Effects of Humic Acid Water-Soluble Fertilizer on Peanut Growth and Yield
HOU Xianfei, MIAO Haocui, LI Qiang, GU Yuanguo, JIA Donghai, SHI Bixian, LIN Ping
2022, 59(7): 1598-1605.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.005
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【Objective】 To study the effects of different proportions of humic acid water-soluble fertilizer on the growth and development of Xinjiang peanuts.【Methods】 Through a three-year long-term location experiment, the main component analysis was used to comprehensively analyze the growth and yield of peanuts under different treatments. 【Results】 Under different water and fertilizer treatments, S3 had the longest growth period of 136 days, which was 11 days longer than the control. The flowering needle period under the S1 treatment was 3 days earlier than the control, and the pod setting period was increased, which was slightly different from the control growth period. In terms of speed, the dry matter growth rate and root-to-shoot ratio of peanut leaves, stems, pods, and roots under different treatments were significantly different, and their changing trends were in the form of "single peak". The dry matter accumulation rate under S1 treatment was quite high. In terms of yield, the yield per plant (fresh weight) and yield per 667 m2 of treatment S1 were the highest, which were 140.33 g and 386.69 kg, respectively, which increased by 21.84% and 3.5% compared with the control. Principal component analysis found that treatment S1 was in a 2-year trial among them, the overall score was the highest, indicating that the N-P-K ratio of humic acid water-soluble fertilizer treated with S1 was more suitable for peanut growth. 【Conclusion】 The N-P-K ratio of 10-40-10 humic acid water-soluble fertilizer treatment (S1) can advance the peanut flower needle period and prolong the pod setting period. The high P content promotes the dry matter growth rate of stalks and pods, and improves the yield of peanut per plant, whose yield is 117.86% higher than that of the traditional ternary compound fertilizer, and the comprehensive characteristics of peanut under S1 treatment are better than those of other treatments, which can be used as a special water-soluble fertilizer for peanuts in Xinjiang for further demonstration experiments.

A preliminary study on the germination conditions of Bolboschoenus planiculmis corm
XU Tongxin, LI Tao, WANG Haodong, QIAN Cancan, MA Jiangfeng, YANG Desong
2022, 59(7): 1606-1614.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.006
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【Objective】 The dormancy characteristics and germination environment of Bolboschoenus planiculmis were studied.【Methods】 The effects of different storage methods on the dormancy of it were studied by using Petri Dish Method and Pot method. The effects of different temperature, pH, salt content, soil humidity and buried depth on the germination of it were studied. The germination rate, germination index and average germination time of trigona were measured.【Results】 The best effect of sleep relieving was water storage at room temperature, and the germination rate was 88.89% after 30 days, while the worst was -20℃ dry storage condition. After 30 days storage, the bulb could not germinate; 25-30℃ was the suitable temperature for the germination of it, with the germination rate of 70%, among which 30℃ was the best germination temperature, and then inhibited the germination of corm with the increase of temperature; pH could germinate within 5-9 range The germination rate of the rhizome was 71.11% - 88.89%, which indicated that the germination rate of triangular bulb of trigonus was not limited by pH;the germination rate of the corm was over 80% when the concentration of NaCl was 0-25 mmol/L, and the germination rate decreased gradually with the increase of the concentration. When the concentration of NaCl was 150 mmol/L, the germination rate of the corm was only 11.11%, and the rhizome could still germinate at high salt concentration; with the soil humidity The germination rate increased ;The germination rate is the largest when the soil depth is 10 cm, which is 82.22%, indicating that is generally in the soil layer of 10 cm.【Conclusion】 Bolboschoenus planiculmis are like warm, wet and tolerant, and belong to the malignant weeds in cotton field, which is difficult to control.

Effects of Cotton Stalk Charcoal on Active Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in Ash Desert Soil
PAN Jinlong, TANG Guangmu, XU Wangli, MA Xueqin, ZHANG Yunshu, MA Haigang, JIA Hongtao
2022, 59(7): 1615-1624.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.007
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【Objective】 To study the effects of carbonization conditions of cotton stalk charcoal on the basic physiochemical properties and active organic carbon and nitrogen of ash desert soil in the hope of providing a theoretical basis for the improvement and application of cotton stalk biochar in ash desert soil in northwest China. 【Methods】 The effects of quantitative application of cotton stalk carbon on basic physiochemical properties and active organic carbon and nitrogen in ash desert soil were studied by indoor constant temperature culture method. 【Results】 Adding cotton stem carbon increased soil pH value, electrical conductivity and organic carbon content, which were increased by 1.48%-2.65%, 25.62%-39.61% and 54.99%-213.09% compared with CK, respectively. Soil microbial biomass nitrogen in some treatments (H0, H4 and T6H2) was increased by 5.21%-95.49% compared with CK, and soil microbial biomass carbon and CEC (except T4H0)were decreased by 27.89-49.50% and 0.08%-5.12%, respectively.T4H1, T6H1 and T6H4 treatments increased the total soil soluble organic carbon content, while other treatments decreased the total soil soluble organic carbon content. With the increase of carbonization temperature and carbonization time, the soil pH value increased. The carbonization time was the same, the carbonization temperature increased, the soil CEC and organic carbon content decreased, and the soil microbial biomass nitrogen and soluble organic carbon content increased. The carbonization time was too short or too long (0.5 h, 4 h) between the carbonization treatments to increase the soil microbial biomass carbon. When the carbonization temperature was high (600℃), the carbonization time affected the soil pH value and organic carbon content. 【Conclusion】 Based on the comprehensive analysis, the cotton stalk charcoal prepared at low temperature for a short time (450℃, 1h) has a good effect on the physiochemical properties and the changes of active organic carbon and nitrogen of ash desert soil, and it is a more suitable carbonization treatment.

Morphological and ISSR Analysis of Purple Sweet Potato Resources
WU Qiaoyu, HE Tianjiu
2022, 59(7): 1625-1631.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.008
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【Objective】 To analyze the genetic diversity of purple sweet potato varieties collected from China, clarify their genetic differences in the hope of providing a theoretical basis for the selection of purple sweet potato genetic breeding parents. 【Methods】 Morphological characters and ISSR fluorescent labeling capillary electrophoresis were carried out to analyze the genetic diversity of varieties of 10 purple sweet potatoes imported from other provinces. 【Results】 The results showed that, based on the cluster map of 20 morphological traits, the tested materials could be divided into two major groups at the Euclidean distance of 9.97. The first major category included Ningzi-1, Shandongzi, Yuzi-2, Xuzi-8, Yuenanzi; the second major category consisted of E-12, Ningzi-4, Yuzi-3, Yuzi-11, Nanzi-018. 6 pairs of primers were used in ISSR molecular marker analysis, the results showed that, the observed alleles (Na) of the purple sweet potato germplasm resources were 2, the average effective allele number (Ne) was 1.9190, and the expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.2375 and Shannon's index (I) was 0.4333. Cluster analysis performed with NTSYSpc 2.1 software demonstrated that when the genetic distance was 0.96, the 10 tested purple sweet potato materials could be divided into two categories. 【Conclusion】 The clustering results of SSR markers and morphological markers of several tested materials were consistent in genetic background and group classification, but the cluster analysis results of the two identification and classification methods also had certain differences. The purple sweet potato resources presented very rich genetic diversity. The combination of morphology and ISSR markers could effectively improve the identification of specific varieties and determine the genetic relationship of germplasm resources objectively and accurately.

Optimization of Enzymolysis of Sweet Sorghum Juice by Response Surface Methodology
Yelesheng Tohedabuick, TU Zhendong, LI Binbin, Nadila Waili, CHEN Ziyun, LI Xuewen
2022, 59(7): 1632-1641.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.009
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【Objective】 To explore the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis process parameters of sweet sorghum juice and provide technical reference for the development and utilization of sweet sorghum related products.【Method】 Using Xinjiang No.3 sweet sorghum as the material, on the basis of single factor experiment, Box-Behnken response surface design was used to investigate the effect of pectinase addition, enzymolysis time, enzymolysis temperature, and enzymolysis pH on sweetness. As for the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of sorghum juice, a quadratic multiple regression model was established with Design-Expert 8.0 and the test results were analyzed by variance.【Results】 After response surface optimization and verification, the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis process parameters were: pectinase dosage 0.06%, enzymatic hydrolysis time 4h, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature 50℃, enzymatic hydrolysis pH4.0, under these conditions, sweet sorghum, the juice transmittance was 85.54% and the viscosity was 1.30mPa.s, which was in good agreement with the predicted model value (85.71%, 1.23mPa.s). 【Conclusion】 After optimizing the enzymatic hydrolysis process conditions through response surface tests, the clarity of sweet sorghum juice is significantly improved while its nutritional value maintained to the greatest extent, which can provide a data basis for subsequent research and production

Horticultural Special Local Products·Forestry·Physiology and Biochemistry
Analysis of Histological Structure and Cell Wall Metabolites in Different Cracking Grape Varieties
WANG Min, HAN Shouan, ZHANG Wen, XIE Hui, Aiermaike Caikasimu, ZHANG Fuchun, ZHONG Haixia, GONG Jiaqi, PAN Mingqi
2022, 59(7): 1642-1649.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.010
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【Objective】 To explore the regulation factors of grape cracking characteristics of different varieties from the verasion period to the maturity stage, and provide data support for the efficient cultivation of easy cracking fruit varieties in Xinjiang.【Methods】 From the verasion period to the mature period, five varieties were taken as the research objects, through the structural substances of the cell wall, water-soluble pectin, propectin, hemicellulose content and metabolic hydrolase PG, PEP, PL and CE enzyme activity were measured and analyzed and finally cell wall structure observation and TUNEL cell apoptosis detection were combined to explore the relationship between cell wall composition and cell apoptosis of fruit cracking.【Results】 80 to 90 days after flowering, the increase in the propectin content Rizamat was 1.1, Red Globe was 31.6,respectively, the Red Globe had the highest increase and the harvest time content was the highest among the five varieties. 70 to 90 days after flowering, the increase in the water-soluble pectin content was 80.8, 67.2% of Xinyu and Rizamat. The Red Globe had the lowest increase 26.1% and the harvest time content was lowest. The activity of pectatelyases of Red Globe decreased. The hemicellulose content of Rizamat increased significantly at maturity, 80 to 90 days after flowering, the increase was 134.7%, the content of Red Globe decreased and had the lowest increase -5.9%. The results of cell structure showed that Rizamat cuticle was uneven with fracture and chain missing, and epidermal cells were loosely arranged with intercellular space. Cavity appeared between subcellular of Xinyu. The stratum corneum of Red Globe was even and smooth, the cells were arranged orderly, and there was no obvious space between the cells. The TUNEL test showed that the programmed cell death was different, the Rizamat was serious during the harvest period, Xinyu, Munake and Black Monukka was milder, but no obvious finding was found in Red Globe.【Conclusion】 During the ripening process of grape fruits, the content and growth rate of the propectin of the non-cracking varieties were significantly higher than easily cracking varieties. The content and growth rate of the water-soluble pectin and hemicelluloses were opposite. As the fruit matures, the easily cracking varieties cell wall structural polysaccharides under the action of enzymes related to cell wall metabolism, propectin is converted into water-soluble pectin, and cellulose is converted into hemicellulose, resulting in uneven surface with fracture and chain missing, and epidermal cells were loosely arranged with intercellular space, and programmed cell death are obvious, which reduces the strength of the peel and the extensibility of the cell wall, and in turn induces the occurrence of fruit cracking.

Effects of Different Storage Methods on Respiratory Metabolism and Texture Indexes of Amygdalus ferganensis var nectarina
WANG Ming, LIU Zihao, CHENG Ping, YANG Lu, ZHANG Zhigang, LI Hong
2022, 59(7): 1650-1658.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.011
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【Objective】 Fruit of Amygdalus ferganensis var nectarina has good quality and good taste, and its distribution area in southern Xinjiang is seriously restricted due to its poor storage and transportation,so it is of great significance to study the storage methods of A.ferganensis var nectarina fruit in order to extend the shelf life of peach.【Methods】 Four excellent germplasm of A.ferganensis var nectarina (Lvguang 5, 13-6#,Lvguang 6 and Huangguang 1) in Aksu region were selected as the research objects. The dynamic changes of respiration metabolism index (respiration intensity, gas ratio change, ethylene release) and texture index (hardness, elasticity, chewiness, stickiness) of A.ferganensis var nectarina fruits during storage were determined by MA cold storage and (1 ± 1)℃ cold storage.【Results】 The results showed that A. ferganensis var nectarina fruit was a typical respiratory climacteric fruit, with obvious respiration and ethylene release peaks. On the 15th day of cold storage treatment, the four nectarines reached the highest value, 13-6# was the highest 37.74 mgCO2/(kg·h), and lvguang 6 was the lowest 28.39 mgCO2/(kg·h). MA refrigeration treatment reached the highest value only after 35 days of cold storage treatment, and the highest value of Huangguang 1 was 32.40 mgCO2/(kg·h), and the lowest value of lvguang 6 was 25.17 mgCO2/(kg·h). MA refrigeration treatment can effectively inhibit the release of ethylene. The ethylene release of refrigeration treatment has an obvious peak at the 15th day, and the peak range is 10.92-17.64 μL/(kg·h), the peak value of MA refrigeration treatment was obvious in the 20th-30th day, ranging from 18.47-24.23 μL/(kg·h)。The microenvironment of low temperature, low O2 and high CO2 effectively inhibited the reduction of hardness, stickiness, cohesion and chewability, so as to better inhibit fruit decay. 【Conclusion】 The fruit decay time of MA cold storage is about 15 days later than that of cold storage, the maturity of Lvguang 6 is obviously delayed during storage, and the fruit texture of Lvguang 6 is better than that of the other three germplasms.

Effects of Exogenous ALA on Chlorophyll Synthesis in Jujube Seedlings under NaCl Stress
CHEN Liliang, SUN Junli, CHANG Xinyi, YE Jiafa
2022, 59(7): 1659-1665.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.012
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【Objective】 To investigate the effect of exogenous ALA on chlorophyll synthesis in jujube seedlings under NaCl stress. 【Methods】 In this experiment jujube seedlings were used as experimental materials by hydroponic to study the content of endogenous ALA, porphobilinogen, protoporphyrin IX, Mg-protoporphyrin IX, protochlorophyll and chlorophyll of jujube seedlings under external spraying of ALA against NaCl. 【Results】 Compared with 150 mmol/L NaCl treatment, application of exogenous spraying of 100 m-g/L ALA significantly increased the endogenous ALA content, porphobilinogen content, protoporphyrin IX content, Mg - protoporphyrin IX content, and protoporphyrin content of jujube seedlings, which were increased by 44.8%, 20.8%, 21.2%, 26.4%, 36.5%, 36.0%, 38.4% and 41.2% respectively compared with NaCl treatment. This study also found that the conversion process of chlorophyll synthesis blocked the site in ALA →PBG. 【Conclusion】 Exogenous ALA can promote the chlorophyll synthesis of jujube seedlings under NaCl stress,thereby promoting the growth of jujube seedlings.

Physiological Response to Complex Saline-alkali and Its Tolerance Capacity Evaluation of Grape Rootstocks at Seedling Stage
BAI Shijian, HU Jinge, LI Chao, CAI Junshe, WANG Yong, ZHAO Ronghua, CHEN Guang
2022, 59(7): 1666-1679.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.013
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【Objective】 The objective of this study is to explore the physiological response of 9 grape rootstocks to saline-alkaline stress at seedling stage and evaluate the tolerance capacity of grapes rootstocks to complex saline-alkaline stress and to screen salt-tolerant accessions for cultivation of salt-alkali lands and provide theoretical basis for the application of grape rootstocks in this kind of field. 【Methods】 The 9 rootstocks(SO4,5BB,3309M,110R,101-14 MG,V.riparia‘Hean-7', St.George,5C and 1103P) were cultivated in pots in a controlled environment chamber,two neutral salt(NaCl and Na2SO4)and one alkali salts(NaHCO3)were mixed with mole ratio of 1:2:1 to simulate typical saline-alkaline stress,the solution supplemented with 100 mmol/L saline-alkaline mixture was as the treatment,the water without exogenous saline-alkaline was used as the control.After that, plant growth,photosynthetic characteristics,leaf and root physiological indexed were measured.The saline-alkaline resistance of rootstocks accessions was evaluated by principal component analysis(PCA)and clustering analysis(CA). 【Results】 The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate of 5BB,110R,5C,101-14MG and 1103P decreased significantly under mixed salt-alkali stress treatment(100 mmol/L,NaCl∶Na2SO4 ∶NaHCO3=1∶2∶1),Net photosynthetic reduction of 110R,5C,101-14MG,1103P were larger than those of others,stomtal conductance reduction of 110R,5C,1103P,St. George were larger than those of others,the same as intercellular carbon dioxide concentration of 110R,5C,1103P,St. George.Chlorophyll mass fraction,weight of a single leaf,plant dry weight of shoots,root dry weight,total root length,root surface area,root volume and root vigor were significantly decreased.Chlorophyll mass fraction of V.riparia‘Hean-7' was less than those of others,growth indicators of V.riparia‘Hean-7' and 5BB were less than those of others,root growth index of V.riparia‘Hean-7' and 3309M were less than those of others,root vigor of 3309M,V.riparia‘Hean-7' and 101-14MG were less than others,all less than 30%,Other indicators varied from species to species,relative water content reduction of 1103P was maximum,the relative electrical conductivity and MDA reduction of 33309M and 101-14 were more than others,the relative electrical conductivity and MDA of V.riparia‘Hean-7' and 5C changed mildly.Principal component analysis was used to analyze 11 indicators tolerance of mixed saline-alkaline coefficients with different rootstocks,and the 11 individual indicators were converted into 5 independent of each other and comprehensive indicators,representing 93.315% of the complete information.The 9 grape rootstocks accessions were sorted into strongly tolerant to saline-alkaline stress,medium tolerance and lower tolerance groups based on principal component analysis(PCA)and clustering analysis (CA). 【Conclusion】 V.riparia‘Hean-7' is strongly tolerance to saline-alkaline stress,5BB,5C, St. George and 3309M are of medium tolerance,SO4, 1103P, 101-14MG and 110R have the characteristics of lower tolerance.

Dynamic Changes of Sugar and Acid Content in Grape Fruits during Development
GUO Quan, GUO Yinshan, GUO Xiuwu
2022, 59(7): 1680-1689.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.014
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【Objective】 To explore the dynamic changes of sugar and acid content during the ripening process of grapes. 【Methods】 ight varieties of grape were used as research materials which were cultivated in northeast of China. Based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the components and content changes of sugar and acid were measured during the different process stages of grapes. 【Results】 The average total sugar content of the 8 grape varieties in mature grapes was 182.74 mg/g FW, among which, the total sugar content of 'Bei Binghong' was the highest (236.82 mg/g FW) and the 'Red Globe' was the lowest (139.82 mg/g FW). Glucose and fructose were the main soluble sugars with a content of about 1.1:1, which accumulated gradually with the process stages of grapes. The average content of organic acids of the 8 grape varieties in mature grapes was 7.64 mg/g FW, mainly tartaric and malic acid which accounted for more than 87.79% of the total acid. Among them, the content of organic acids of 'Shuang Hong' was the highest (12.69 mg/g FW) and the 'Victoria' was the lowest (3.96 mg/g FW). Except that the Euramerican hybrid of "Fujiminori" and "Takatsuma" contained malic acid as main organic acid (52.60% and 53.77%), the other grape varieties contained tartaric acid as main organic acid (47.39%~66.16%). 【Conclusion】 The major soluble sugar in grape fruits is glucose and fructose, and total sugar content increases with the ripening process of grapes. The major organic acid was tartaric acid and malic acid, and total acid content increase first and then decrease with the ripening process of grapes. The order of the rapid accumulation of sugar and the rapid decomposition of organic acids in the grapes of each variety correspond to the length at the mature period, while the time required for the rapid accumulation of sugar and the rapid decomposition of organic acids have no direct relevance to the length of the growth and development cycle of each variety.

Effects of different ground cover materials on soil environment of apple orchard in oasis of Xinjiang
YAN Pan, WANG Jiuzhao, JIANG Jiyuan, CHEN Qiling
2022, 59(7): 1690-1696.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.015
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【Objective】 Explore the effects of different covering materials on soil environment of oasis apple orchard, to provides a reference for the scientific application of ground covering materials. 【Methods】 The single factor experiment design was adopted to compare the differences of soil environment by setted six covering treatments: non-woven fabric, polypropylene non-woven fabric, polyethylene woven fabric, tarpaulin covering, white and black plastic film. 【Results】 The coverage of weeds could be reduced to less than 10% by ground covering, but there were more weeds in non-woven fabrics. The peak temperature of the surface layer of the control soil appeared at 18 o'clock and that of the deep layer at 24 o'clock. The peak time did not change significantly after the covering material was laid. The diurnal temperature range of soil surface layer and deep layer of black film was 17.36℃ and 5.66℃ respectively, which were higher than that of the control. The soil temperature and diurnal range were decreased by ground cloth, and increased by plastic film. The soil peak temperature of plastic film was 2.1 ~ 5.3℃ higher than that of control. Soil moisture was the highest at 17:00 p.m., and there was no significant difference in soil daily average moisture, soil alkalinity and salt content between the control and treatments. There was a significant positive correlation between soil temperature and soil moisture, and a significant positive correlation between soil moisture and pH, but a significant negative correlation between soil moisture and salt content. Compared with the control, the correlation between the indexes was decreased by ground cloth, but increased by plastic film covering.【Conclusion】 Ground cover had a significant effect on the peak value of soil temperature and moisture, but had no significant effect on the mean value. The surface soil pH and salt content were significantly affected by ground cover, but not by deep soil. The influence of plastic film on soil environment is the strongest, and it has obvious effect of warming and moisturizing.

Relationships between Soil Factors and Sap Flow of Tamarix chinensis Lour. at Different Time Scales
HUANG Yaru, MA Yingbin, LI Yonghua, DUAN Ruibing, LIU Yuan, DONG Xue, HAN Chunxia, HAO Xuting
2022, 59(7): 1697-1707.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.016
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【Objective】 To reveal whether there is a time-scale difference in the influence of soil factors on sap flow of Tamarix chinensis Lour in the hope more accurately analyzing the change law of tamarisk sap flow under different time scales.【Methods】 The PS-TDP8 tree sap flow monitoring system and 5TM soil temperature and humidity sensor were used to simultaneously observe the tamarisk sap flow rate and soil factors (soil water content SWC and soil temperature Ts) in the southeast of the Kumtag Desert for 5 months.【Results】 On the monthly scale, Ts20cm, the main factor that influences the change of liquid flow rate, which could explain 91.7% of the change in flow rate alone. On the daily scale, the entered soil factors were Ts20cm,Ts200cm, SWC50cm, SWC150cm, SWC20cm, Ts20cm, which could explain 72.1% of the change in liquid flow rate, and all the five factors could explain 82.9% of the change in sap flow rate. The soil temperature in the 20cm layer had the greatest influence on the tamarisk sap flow rate on the daily scale. On the hour scale, Ts20cm had the greatest impact on liquid flow. Ts20cm could explain 37.6% of the change in liquid flow rate, and six factors together could explain 55.9% of the change in liquid flow rate.【Conclusion】 Numerous parameters are needed to calculate hourly tamarisk sap flow rate through soil factor simulation, and predicting the monthly sap flow rate requires the fewest parameters and has the greatest reliability. This can better explain the changes in the tamarisk sap flow rate with more accurate prediction.

Diurnal Changes in Photosynthesis of Different Introduced Fraxinus SPP Varieties
SHI Kaiqi, WANG Heping, LI Bin, CHEN Yong, YANG Jianjun, CHENG Ping
2022, 59(7): 1708-1715.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.017
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【Objective】 To probe into the differences of photosynthetic characteristics of different introduced Fraxinus in Yili area and analyze the effects of physiological and ecological factors in the hope of providing scientific basis for the introduction, breeding and regional cultivation of Fraxinus chinensis in this area.【Methods】 The diurnal changes of photosynthesis of eight introduced Fraxinus chinensis seedlings (Lula No.1, No.2, No.3, No.4, No.5, no.6, Red leaf Fraxinus and Fraxinus chinensis 'Aurea') under natural conditions in Yili area of Xinjiang were measured by li-6400xt photosynthetic apparatus. The relationship between different physiological ecological factors and photosynthetic characteristics was analyzed with Fraxinus macrophylla in the same year as control. 【Results】 The eight introduced varieties (lines) of Fraxinus chinensis showed better photosynthetic characteristics than those of Fraxinus rhynchophylla, and the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of different varieties (lines) showed a single peak or double peak curve; PN of each variety (line) was affected by different physiological and ecological factors, among which stomatal conductance (Gs) was the most important factor, and was negatively correlated with intercellular dioxygen (Ci), and it was negatively correlated with PAR and RH (P<0.05) or extremely negatively correlated (P<0.01).【Conclusion】 The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE) and local adaptability of the eight introduced Fraxinus chinensis seedlings are higher, and the introduction and domestication of Lula 3 and Lula 6 are the most successful.

Effects of Different Leguminosaeseed Dry Powder on Seed Germination and Plant Growth of Jiashi Melon
Maimaitiaizezi Muhetaer, ZHAO Xiaomeng, WANG Dong
2022, 59(7): 1716-1725.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.018
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【Objective】 To careen out the leguminous plants with less inhibitory effect on seed germination and better promoting effect on plant growth by comparing the effects of Leguminosae seed dry powder leguminous plants on seed germination and plant growth in outdoor pots with a view to provide basis for the development of green fertilizer of bitter bean.【Methods】 With Jiashi melon as the test crop, six legumes, including Sophoraalopecuroides,Trifoliumrepens, Medicago sativa, Pisumsativum, Vignaunguiculata and Vignaradiata were selected as test materials to study the effects of different Leguminosaeseed dry powder on the germination of Jiashi melon seeds and Jiashi melon plant morphology and related physiological and biochemical indicators.【Results】 Dry seed powders of 6 legumes had inhibitory effects on the germination of Jiashi melon seeds, among which cloverseeds had the strongest inhibitory effects and Vignaradiata seeds the weakest inhibitory effects. Sophoraalopecuroides seed powder had a higher promoting effect on the plant height, leaf area, dry weight and chlorophyll content of Jiashi melon than other legume seeds.【Conclusion】 Compared with other leguminous plants, the dry seed powder of Sophoraalopecuroides has a better promotion effect on the plant morphology and related physiological and biochemical indexes of Jiashi melon. Therefore, in the development of Jiashi melon green manure, Sophoraalopecuroides seeds can be selected as a priority choice.

Plant Protection
Identification of Pathogen Causing Fruit Bacterial Streak on Pepper
ZHANG Luhui, ZHAO Zhiqiang, GUO Qingyuan
2022, 59(7): 1726-1733.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.019
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【Objective】 In 2018, a new disease causing the fruit bacterial streak on pepper was discovered in the pepper planting area of Hexud County in Xinjiang. This project aims to clarify its pathogenic species, and provide basis for further research on the disease regularity in field and control the disease.【Methods】 Tissue separation method, Koch's postulates, morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characteristics determination, 16SrDNA gene phylogenetic analysis were used to identify the pathogen of the disease. 【Results】 Thirty single colonies were isolated and purified from the surface of diseased fruits collected in the pepper field. Through the pathogenicity back inoculated by acupuncture inoculation method, four pathogenic strains were obtained. They were consistent with the morphological characteristics and physiological and biochemical test results. The phylogenetic tree results showed that the four pathogenic strains were grouped into one branch: Pseudomonasargentinensis that was reported, and the similarity with the model strain P. argentinensis CH01T (accession number: AY691188) reached 99.2 %. 【Conclusion】 The pathogen of pepper bacterial streak in Hexud County in Xinjiang was identified as P. argentinensis.

Evaluation of Methods for Isolating Nematodes from Agaricus bisporus Culture Medium
JIA Peisong, JIA Wenjie, LUO Ying, Nurziya Yarmamat, WANG Yihua, Wemqiemu Abuliz, WEI Peng
2022, 59(7): 1734-1740.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.020
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【Objective】 To provide theoretical basis and technical support for the investigation, isolation and research of nematode disease in Agaricus bisporus, through determining the scientific method of isolating nematodes from Agaricus bisporus culture medium.【Methods】 Nematoda was isolated from Agaricus bisporus substrate by Beman funnel method. The effects of different substrate types, different production methods and media treatment methods on the occurrence of Nematoda were evaluated.【Results】 The results showed that there were significant differences in nematode isolation rate among different matrix materials, the separation rates of cotton stalk, wheat straw, cottonseed hull and soil was 86.05%, 70.91%, 37.98% and 28.03%, respectively; The porosity of wheat straw, cotton stalk, cottonseed hull and soil was 3.36, 2.48, 2.02 and 1.24 mL/g, respectively; There were significant differences in nematode concentration under different production methods and treatments; The nematode concentration in the substrate was the lowest under the conditions of industrial production and secondary fermentation, the nematode concentration was 0 / 100g and 59.21 / 100g respectively in the culture medium, and was 12 / 100g and 79 / 100g in soil covering materials respectively, before and after fruiting; The nematode concentration in the substrate was the highest under the conditions of agricultural production and one-time fermentation, the nematode concentration was 1,556.33/100g and 5,371.33/100g respectively in the culture medium, and was 79/100g and 5,236.67/100g in soil covering materials respectively, before and after fruiting. 【Conclusion】 There was a significant difference in the rate of nematode isolation among different matrix materials, and there was a significant positive correlation between the rate of nematode isolation and porosity. The number of nematodes is closely related to the mode of production and the method of culture material treatment, the more advanced the mode of production and the more thorough the fermentation treatment of culture material, the lower the number of nematodes.

Occurrence and Harm of Sphaerolecanium prunastri in wild Fruit Forests in Xinjiang
WANG Yuli, LÜ Zhaozhi, LING Huwei, WANG Qiang, GAO Guizhen
2022, 59(7): 1741-1747.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.021
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【Objective】 To clarify the occurrence and harm of Sphaerolecanium prunastri in wild fruit forests and provide scientific basis for the effective prevention and control of the pest.【Methods】 Seven wild apricot concentrated distribution areas in wild fruit forests in Xinjiang were selected as site plots from 2019 to 2020 to investigate the number and victimization degree of S. prunastri on Armeniaca vulgaris by visual method.【Results】 Number of S.prunastri was different in different affected grades of A. vulgaris. The maximum number of first-instar nymphs of S. prunastri was 1108.46 per 50 cm branch, and there was a significant positive correlation with the number of female adults of the previous generation. The occurrence and harm of S. prunastri were different at different survey sites. Among them, the number of S. prunastri was the largest in Saha of Gongliu County, and the damage index of wild apricot was relatively high. The occurrence of S. prunastri was less in Jiaotuohai of Xinyuan County, where the damage index of A. vulgaris was the lowest. Nevertheless, there was an increasing trend from 2019 to 2020.【Conclusion】 The spread speed of S. prunastri in the wild fruit forests area and the surrounding agricultural area is relatively fast and the control is difficult. It is suggested to seize the best time to control S. prunastri and adopt regional control strategy to control the spread of the pest.

Selection of Agents for Alternaria tenuissima of Pathogen of Celery Leaf Spot
ZHANG Jianqiang, Abdramane Salah Zene, WANG Jianglai, LI Jiajia, ZHANG Xiaomeng, WU Kangli, TIAN Yongqinang
2022, 59(7): 1748-1757.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.022
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【Objective】 This study aims to screen out the agents that have a good control effect on celery leaf spot (the pathogen was: Alternaria tenuissima).【Method】 The toxicity of 14 fungicides to the mycelia and spore germination of A.tenuissima were measured in laboratory and the field efficacy test was carried out.【Result】 Among the 14 fungicides, the best inhibition effect on pathogen mycelia was 3% Metalaxyl hymexazol, 5% Carvacrol, 10% difenoconazole, and the EC50 was 10.8, 19.9, 26.2 μg/mL, respectively.The best inhibition effect on spore germination was 3% Metalaxyl hymexazol, 25% Azoxystrobin, 43% Tebuconazole, and the EC50 was 15.7, 29.5, 38.7 μg/mL, respectively.The inhibition test on mycelia and spores showed that only 3% Metalaxyl hymexazol had the best control effect.And the field efficacy test verified the best control effect of the agent was 3% Metalaxyl hymexazol and 5% Carvacrol, its control effect was 96.3% and 83.9%, respectively.【Conclusion】 3% alopectyl was most suitable for the prevention and treatment of celery leaf spot in the field.

Soil Fertilizer·Agricultural Equipment Engineering and Mechanization·Animal Husbandry Veterinarian·Prataculture
Screening of Functional Bacteria of Organic-Inorganic Liquid Compound Fertilizers and Its Effect on the Quality and Physiological Activity of Greenhouse Tomato
XU Junfeng, YANG Rong, ZHAN Faqiang, HOU Min, BAO Huifang, WANG Ning, LONG Xuanqi, ZHANG Zhidong, CUI Weidong
2022, 59(7): 1758-1766.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.023
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【Objective】 This experiment aims to explore whether microorganisms with different functions can stably exist in an organic-inorganic liquid compound fertilizers under a hypertonic environment, and the effects of different concentrations of bacterial liquid and organic-inorganic compound fertilizers on the quality and physiological activity of tomato fruit influence in the hope of providing theoretical data for organic tomato planting and quality improvement and preservation based on bio-organic-inorganic compound fertilizers.【Methods】 Bacillus with different functions were connected to the same amount of organic-inorganic liquid compound fertilizers shake flasks in the form of spores, and stored at room temperature. The total number of colonies was regularly detected by the plate counting method, and the strains with good tolerance and high stability were screened out. Then this strain was used to prepare biological organic-inorganic liquid compound fertilizers in different concentration ratios. Starting from the two-ear period of tomato, bio-organic-inorganic liquid compound fertilizers and conventional fertilizers were applied every 10 days. After 49 days, the difference in tomato fruit quality and physiological activity was detected.【Results】 Bacillus velezensis LYT-5 had the strongest stability among organic-inorganic liquid compound fertilizers, and strong resistance to stress in a hypertonic environment, and could be effectively compounded with organic-inorganic liquid compound fertilizers. Compared with the control (conventional fertilizers, 300 kg/hm2): T3 (organic-inorganic liquid compound fertilizers, 300 kg/hm2 + bacterial solution, 15 L/hm2) had the highest comprehensive improvement in fruit quality after 49 days. The average weight of single tomato fruits increased by 15 %, fruit shape index increased by 13 %, soluble polysaccharide content increased significantly by 43 %, sugar-acid ratio increased by 13 %, soluble protein increased by 6 %, which were suitable for short-term consumption and processing, etc.; and organic-inorganic after 49 days of treatment with functional bacteria of liquid compound fertilizers, tomato fruit onphenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity increased by up to 220 %, and ascorbate peroxidase activity increased by up to 21 %, which effectively improved the stress resistance and storage capacity of tomato fruits. 【Conclusion】 A functional strain that can stably exist in organic-inorganic liquid compound fertilizers and that has higher activity is screened out, and the concentration is T3 (organic-inorganic liquid compound fertilizers, 300 kg/hm2 + bacterial solution, 15 L/hm2). It can obviously increase the yield and quality of tomato fruit after being applied at the same time, and reduce the loss after picking, which provides basic theoretical data for the research and application of biological organic-inorganic liquid compound fertilizers.

Effects of Different Additives on Quality and Aerobic Stability of Cyperus esculentus Silage
HE Tingting, WANG Xuzhe, SONG Lei, MA Chunhui
2022, 59(7): 1767-1775.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.024
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【Objective】 The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of different additives on the quality change of Cyperus esculentus silage, so as to screen out suitable silage additives. 【Methods】 Three treatments with different additives were designed, which were 0.2% Lactobacillus plantarum (W1 treatment), 0.5% cellulase (W2 treatment), 0.2% Lactobacillus plantarum+0.5% cellulase (W3 treatment). CK was used as control treatment, which was added with crushed Cyperus esculentus, and the fermentation period was 60 days. The changes of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and pH value of each treatment on the 0 th, 7 th, 15 th, 30 th, 45 th and 60 th days during fermentation were detected and the internal temperature changes of silage of each treatment after pit opening were dynamically monitored. 【Results】 Silage fermentation time and three additive treatments showed significant interaction in pH, DM, CP, WSC and NH3-N of Cyperus esculentus silage (P< 0.01), and had significant influence on NDF and ADF (P<0.05). W3 had the lowest pH, NH3-N, NDF and ADF, and the highest CP, WSC and RFV contents. The stabilization time of W3 after aerobic exposure was significantly higher than that of other treatments (P< 0.05), reaching 115 hours. Comprehensive evaluation order was: W3 treatment > W1 treatment > W2 treatment > CK treatment. 【Conclusion】 All the three additives can effectively improve the quality of Cyperus esculentus silage, improve its nutritional value and prolong the aerobic stability time of silage, among which Lactobacillus plantarum (0.2%)+ cellulase (0.5%) has the best silage effect.

Spatial Variability of Farmland Soil Nutrients in Ta'er Basin Based on GIS
XIN Huinan, LAI Ning, GENG Qinglong, CHEN Shuhuang, LI Na, LI Yongfu, ZHAO Haiyan
2022, 59(7): 1776-1785.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.025
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【Objective】 To grasp the spatial distribution and changes of cultivated soil nutrients in Tahe Basin.【Methods】 Based on the sample point nutrient data (organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolized nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium) in 2010 and 2018 in this region, statistical and geostatistical methods were used to combine with GIS technology to explore the spatiotemporal variability of ploughed soil.【Results】 From 2010 to 2018, the indicators of topsoil were in moderate intensity variation, among which the highest coefficient of variation was 85.79% of available phosphorus in 2018.According to the standardized Z value, the standardized Z value of all indicators in 2018 was lower than that in 2010, indicating that the spatial autocorrelation of the following indicators weakened in recent years.The nutrient index content was low in all four weeks and high in the middle.Under different soil types, the nutrient content of tidal soil increased the least, while under the other two types of soil there was a significant increase.Under different irrigation methods, the nutrient content of both drip and diffuse irrigation increased, but the increase of nutrient content under diffuse irrigation was lower than that under drip irrigation.【Conclusion】 Human activities, such as straw mulching, fertilization and rotation rest, are the main factors affecting the spatiotemporal changes of soil nutrients.

Study on Evaluation of Cultivated Land Quality and Diagnosis of Obstacle Factors in Altay Region, Xinjiang
ZHANG Zhibin, FAN Yanmin, WU Hongqi, DONG Tong, LIU Jing, LI Yupeng, GU Haibin
2022, 59(7): 1786-1794.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.026
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【Objective】 In order to ensure the efficient use of arable land resources, this study evaluates the quality of arable land in the Altai region in terms of grade, on the basis of which a barrier degree model is introduced to diagnose the barrier factors for low grade land, so as to provide data support for future improvement and construction of arable land.【Method】 In this study, 13 indicators were selected from three aspects of land conditions, physical and chemical properties and arable land management using Telfer method, hierarchical analysis and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and the quality of arable land and obstacle factors in Altai region were analyzed and diagnosed quantitatively by using GIS technology and obstacle degree model.【Results】 (1) The average grade of arable land quality in Altay is 5.24, with excellent land (Grade 1 to 3), medium land (Grade 4 to 6) and low land (Grade 7 to 10) accounting for 12.30%, 62.84% and 24.86% of the total arable land area, respectively, indicating that the current status of arable land quality in Altay is good. (2) Obstacle factors were diagnosed for the lowlands in the Altai region, and it was found that the evaluation indexes of organic matter, effective phosphorus, irrigation capacity and effective soil thickness accounted for a higher percentage of obstacles, 16.30%, 13.41%, 12.27% and 8.32%, respectively, with mild and moderate obstacles, mainly in Burqin, Fuhai and Qinghe counties, and the obstacles of arable land in Fuyun County were not obvious.【Conclusion】 The cultivated land quality in Altay area is affected by altitude, environment and other factors, with a decreasing trend from northeast to southwest. At the same time, the types, quantity and spatial distribution of obstacle factors in low land are clarified. It provides scientific basis for improving the quality of cultivated land and ensuring the productive capacity of cultivated land.

Development of Automatic Barrier Free Dynamic Weighing Equipment for Beef Cattle
ZHAO Huibing, MA Juan, ZHANG Jie, LI Hao, GUO Lei, FENG Bin
2022, 59(7): 1795-1801.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.027
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【Objective】 The body weight data of cattle is an important index to measure the healthy growth and development of cattle and weighing cattle regularly is also the basic work of fine breeding. 【Methods】 At present, the methods of obtaining beef cattle weight in large and medium-sized beef cattle farms in China are mainly through the weighbridge with fence, body size estimation and measurement, and static weighing of beef cattle by Baoding frame. Static weighing not only consumeed a lot of labor, but also made beef cattle produce stress reaction, which led to the decrease of beef cattle feed intake and affects the production efficiency of beef cattle breeding. Domestic experts and enterprises continued to deepen the research of beef cattle automatic dynamic weighing technology, the goal was to achieve the full range of beef cattle weighing barrier free and complete automation; at the same time, it was also the urgent demand of major beef cattle farms. In view of the above problems, this paper developed a beef cattle automatic dynamic weighing system. It was mainly composed of main mechanical structure framework, RFID radio frequency identification system, power supply system, control system and data transmission.【Results】 Firstly, it can realize the whole process barrier free breeding of beef cattle, and monitor the beef cattle weight information under the natural walking state, effectively avoid the beef cattle to produce stress reaction; Secondly, the weighing efficiency is high, and the system locks the effective weight data of beef cattle between 2 and 4 seconds. The average time for each cow from entering the channel to the end of weighing is within 10 seconds. 【Conclusion】 The error of beef cattle passing through the weighing platform is less than 0.5%, while that of beef cattle is less than 0.2% in the state of walking pause and steady walking.

Study on Interannual Dynamics Change of Stipa caucsica and Seriphidium borotalense Community
ZHANG Xianhua, LI Jiangyan, WU Yongmei, ZHU Jinzhong
2022, 59(7): 1802-1807.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.028
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【Objective】 To analyze the changes of plant community characteristics under long-term grazing conditions. 【Methods】 The species composition and quantitative characteristics of desert steppe with Stipa caucsica and Seriphidium borotalense on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains were analyzed, so did the data from 1985 to 2001 by using the method of positioning continuous measurement. 【Results】 The results showed that the species composition and communities structure did not change, but the communities quantitative characteristics changed in a dynamic process during the 17 years. The height, coverage, and above-ground biomass of the plant community did not change more, and they changed the same way with natural precipitation from 1985 to 1995, so we could know that natural precipitation was the major factor affecting the changes of the community's quantitative characteristics, followed by the grazing factor. But the changes of the communities quantitative characteristics had a fluctuation greatly during the period from 1996 to 2001, whether it was the influence on climate or the role of grazing pressure that would be studied in the future.【Conclusion】 In the period from 1985 to 1995, the fluctuation range of the height, coverage and above-ground biomass of grassland community was small, which was basically consistent with the fluctuation law of precipitation. The main factor affecting the change of grassland community quantitative characteristics was precipitation. Grazing disturbance is a secondary cause;During the period from 1996 to 2001, the quantitative characteristics of grassland communities fluctuated more than before,and whether it is the effect of climate or grazing pressure needs to be further studied.The results can provide data basis for the rational grassland utilization strategy.

Expression and Immunogenicity Identification of Recombinant Fusion Protein of eGFP Labeled as Rabies Virus G Gene and Echinococcus granulosus EgM123 gene
Arzugul abliz, HU Meihe, WANG Nan, LIU Laizhen, Gulnigar Alip, ZHAI Shaohua
2022, 59(7): 1808-1813.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.029
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【Objective】 To study the protein expression effect and immunogenicity of recombinant plasmids of rabies virus G gene, Echinococcus granulosus EgM123 gene and EGFP gene in eukaryotic cells in the hope of constructing the recombinant rabies SRV9 virus vaccine strain with EgM123 gene by reverse geneticstechnology,which can save EgM123 gene recombinant rabies by reverse genetics, it also provides the research basis for the development of rabies and hydatid disease combined gene recombinant vaccine.【Methods】 In this study, we successfully constructed the recombinant plasmid(3033bp) of G gene of rabies virus carrying EGFP enhanced green fluorescent protein EgM123 gene of Echinococcus granulosus and transfected it into BHK-21 cells by liposome transfection. The fusion protein was expressed in BHK-21 cells and observed by fluorescence microscopy, SDS-PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The fluorescent protein expression, molecular weight and immunogenicity of the fusion protein were identified by Western blotting test. 【Results】 The results of recombinant plasmid transfection showed that the recombinant plasmid transfection was effective, the expression of green fluorescent protein could be seen in 48 hours after transfection, and SDS-PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the recombinant plasmid was expressed in BHK-21 cells with fusion protein with molecular weight of about 120KDa; Western Blotting results showed that the protein gel transferred PVDF membrane was incubated with rabies virus G protein monoclonal antibody, EgM123 polyclonal antibody and GFP monoclonal antibody respectively, and antigen antibody binding bands were seen at 120KDa. 【Conclusion】 The fusion protein is successfully expressed in eukaryotic cells with EGFP labeled recombinant egm123 gene of rabies virus, and the recombinant plasmid has immunogenicity.

Comparative Analysis on Meat Performance and Meat Quality of Xinjiang Brown Cattle and Kazak Cattle
DU Wei, LI Hongbo, ZHOU Zhenyong, ZHANG Jinshan, CUI Fanrong, YE Zhibing, YUAN Lixing, ZHANG YANG
2022, 59(7): 1814-1819.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.030
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【Objective】 To study the performance and meat quality of Xinjiang brown cattle and Kazak beef.【Methods】 Five 12-month-old healthy Xinjiang brown cattle and five Kazak steers were selected, and under the same feeding and management conditions,after continuous fattening for 18 months, they were slaughtered for analyzing their body size development, meat performance and meat quality. Finally, these indexes were determined.【Results】 Body height and cross height of Xinjiang brown cattle were significantly higher than that of Kazak cattle(P<0.05); The hind-leg girth, thick thighs, heavy carcass and eye muscle area of Xinjiang brown cattle were significantly higher than those of Kazak cattle(P<0.05); According to the analysis of meat quality, the shearing force of Xinjiang brown cattle was significantly lower than that of Kazak cattle(P<0.05); The flesh color of L* A* B* of Xinjiang brown cattle was significantly higher than that of Kazak cattle(P<0.05); The fat and protein content was significantly higher than that of Kazakh cattle(P<0.05).【Conclusion】 After comprehensive evaluation, Xinjiang brown cattle showed significant advantages in body size development and meat performance compared with Kazak cattle, and the meat quality was more outstanding.