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    Standard Production Technology Research Column of Safflower
    Effect of reducing chemical fertilizer and applying microbial one on the growth and yield of Carthamus tinctorius L. under mulch drip irrigation
    JIA Donghia, SONG Xianming, GU Yuanguo, LI Qiang, ZENG Youling, MIAO Haocui, GUO Meili, HOU Xianfei
    2024, 61(4): 781-790.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.001
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1685KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To study the effect of chemical fertilizer reduction combined with microbial fertilizer on the growth and development of Carthamus tinctorius L.. 【Methods】 From 2020 to 2021, a two-year located fertilization experiment was arranged in Yumin County, Tacheng Prefecture, Xinjiang. The split plot experiment design was adopted, and six treatments were set up: (1)CK:no fertilization;(2) CF:compound fertilizer of 20 kg/667m2;(3)OF:microbial bacterial fertilizer of 20 kg/667m2;(4) CF+25M:chemical fertilizer of 15 kg/667m2(chemical fertilizer reduction of 25%)+microbial bacterial fertilizer of 5 kg/667m2;(5) CF+37.5M:chemical fertilizer of 12.5 kg/667m2(chemical fertilizer decreased by 37.5%)+microbial bacterial fertilizer of 7.5 kg/667m2;(6) CF+50M:chemical fertilizer of 10 kg/667m2(chemical fertilizer decreased by 50%)+microbial bacterial fertilizer of 10 kg/667m2. During the experiment, the effects of different fertilization treatments on the agronomic characters, dry matter accumulation and distribution, and yield formation of Carthamus tinctorius L. were studied. 【Results】 The results showed that CF+25M and CF+37.5M treatments were more conducive to the growth and development of Carthamus tinctorius L. than CF treatment, which could significantly increase the plant height, number of branches, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of Carthamus tinctorius L., promote the accumulation of dry matter of Carthamus tinctorius L., regulate the distribution of dry matter, coordinate and improve the yield components of Carthamus tinctorius L., thereby increasing the yield of Carthamus tinctorius L. filament and seed. Among them, the comprehensive performance of Carthamus tinctorius L. under CF+37.5M treatment was the best. The number of fruit balls per plant, 1,000 grain weight, filament yield and grain yield of Carthamus tinctorius L. under CF+37.5M treatment were significantly increased by 87.85%, 12.29%, 11.42% and 15.78%, respectively, compared with CF treatment. In addition, the plant height, root length and chlorophyll content of Carthamus tinctorius L. reached the highest level under CF+37.5M treatment. 【Conclusion】 Proper reduction of chemical fertilizer and application of microbial fertilizer (37.5% reduction of chemical fertilizer, 12.5 kg/667m2 of chemical fertilizer+7.5 kg/667m2 of microbial fertilizer) is an environmental protection fertilization scheme that can effectively reduce the application amount of chemical fertilizer. It can promote the growth and development of Carthamus tinctorius L. root system, improve the fertilizer utilization rate, so as to increase the dry matter accumulation of Carthamus tinctorius L., coordinate the yield composition of Carthamus tinctorius L..

    Effects of water and nitrogen coupling on growth and yield of Carthamus tinctorius L. under mulch drip irrigation
    HOU Xianfei, SONG Xianming, LI Qiang, GU Yuanguo, MIAO Haocui, ZENG Youling, GUO Meili, JIA Donghai
    2024, 61(4): 791-803.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.002
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    【Objective】 To study the effects of water and nitrogen coupling on the growth, dry matter accumulation and yield of Carthamus tinctorius L.. 【Methods】 The split area test design was adopted, with the irrigation volume as the main area. Before sowing, basic fertilizer diammonium phosphate (64% of total nutrients, N-P2O5=18-46) 150 kg/hm2, potassium oxide (30%) 75 kg/hm2 were applied and two factors of irrigation water (W) and nitrogen application rate (N), three irrigation water levels were set: W1: 1,200 m3/hm2 (low irrigation rate), W2: 1,500 m3/hm2 (middle irrigation rate) and W3: 1,800 m3/hm2 (high irrigation rate), three nitrogen application levels: N0: no nitrogen application (contrast), N1:300 kg/hm2 (traditional nitrogen application rate) and N2: 600 kg/hm2 (high nitrogen application rate). During the test, the agronomic characters, dry matter accumulation and yield of Carthamus tinctorius L. under different treatments and different periods were measured, and the effects of different water and nitrogen treatments on the growth and yield of Carthamus tinctorius L. were evaluated. 【Results】 The appropriate amount of irrigation and fertilization had a significant role in promoting the growth and development of Carthamus tinctorius L.. The plant height, number of branches, number of leaves and other agronomic traits of Carthamus tinctorius L. under W2N1 and W2N2 treatments were significantly higher than those under other treatments. The dry matter accumulation rate and amount, number of fruit balls per plant and number of seeds per fruit of Carthamus tinctorius L. under W2N1 treatment reached the highest level, and the filament yield and grain yield under W2 treatment were significantly increased by 8.09% and 20.84% compared with W1 and W3 treatment, under N1 and N2 treatment, the difference was small, but they were significantly increased by 10.69% and 25.66% compared with N0 treatment. 【Conclusion】 Irrigation amount and traditional fertilization amount (W2N1: 1,500 m3/hm2 of irrigation and 300 kg/hm2 of fertilization) are combination of water and nitrogen, which can promote the growth and development of Carthamus tinctorius L., provide water and fertilizer utilization efficiency, increase dry matter accumulation, coordinate yield components, thus achieving the goal of high yield and quality of Carthamus tinctorius L..

    Effects of planting density and row spacing on growth and yield of Carthamus tinctorius L. under mulch drip irrigation
    SONG Xianming, HOU Xianfei, GU Yuanguo, MIAO Haocui, LI Qiang, GUO Meili, ZENG Youling, JIA Donghia
    2024, 61(4): 804-813.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.003
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    【Objective】 To study the effects of different planting density and row spacing on the growth and yield of Carthamus tinctorius L.,Which can coordinate the growth of Carthamus tinctorius L. and significantly improve the yield of Carthamus tinctorius L. filament and seed.【Methods】 Field planting experiment was carried out in Yumin County, Tacheng Prefecture, Xinjiang from 2020 to 2021. Two-factor randomized block design was adopted, and four treatments were set for planting density: 1.0×104 plants/667m2 (A1), 1.5×104 plants/667m2 (A2), 2.0×104 plants/667m2 (A3) and 2.5×104 plants/667m2 (A4), two treatments were set for row spacing: 20 cm (B1) and 30 cm (B2). The effects of different planting densities and row spacing on the agronomic characters, dry matter accumulation and yield of Carthamus tinctorius L. were analyzed. 【Results】 The results showed that within a certain planting density range, the plant height, chlorophyll content, dry matter accumulation, yield and other indicators of Carthamus tinctorius L. gradually increased with the increase of density, while the number of fruit balls per plant, the number of seeds per fruit and the thousand-grain weight gradually decreased with the increase of density, while different row spacing had little effect on each index of Carthamus tinctorius L.. The comprehensive index and yield of Carthamus tinctorius L. under A3B1 and A3B2 treatment reached the highest level, and the filament yield under A3 treatment increased by 15.73%, 11.23% and 7.97% respectively compared with A1, A2 and A4 treatment, and the grain yield increased by 18.75%, 11.96% and 14.50%, respectively, compared with A1, A2 and A4 treatments. 【Conclusion】 Reasonable planting density (2.0×104 plants/667m2, 20 cm(B1) or 30 cm(B2) equal row spacing) is the basis of high-yield and efficient cultivation mode of Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Crop Genetics and Breeding·Germplasm Resources·Molecular Genetics·Physiology and Biochemistry
    Effects of urease/nitrification inhibitors on nutrient absorption and yield of cotton
    YE Yang, HOU Zhen'an, MIN Wei, GUO Huijuan
    2024, 61(4): 814-822.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.004
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    【Objective】 To investigate the effects of urease inhibitor N-butyl thiophosphoryl triamine (NBPT) and nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on nutrient uptake and yield in cotton. 【Methods】 Using field experiments, the tested crops were cotton Xinluzao 64 and Lumianyan 24. Four treatments were set up: no nitrogen fertilizer (N0), nitrogen fertilizer (N300), nitrogen fertilizer+urease inhibitor (N300+NBPT), and nitrogen fertilizer+nitrification inhibitor (N300+DMPP). 【Results】 The results showed that compared to N0, all nitrogen application treatments significantly increased cotton biomass and promoted the absorption of nutrient nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium by cotton plants. The order of nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency from high to low is N300+DMPP>N300+NBPT>N300. Applying nitrogen fertilizer and urease/nitrification inhibitors can significantly increase cotton yield. The Lumianyan 24 had better nutrient absorption, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and higher yield than Xinluzao 64, but its biomass was significantly lower than that of Xinluzao 64. 【Conclusion】 Adding urease and nitrification inhibitors can promote the absorption and utilization of nutrients by cotton plants, improve nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency, and ultimately effectively increase cotton yield.

    Study on the effect of dry seeding and wet emergence on the distribution of water and salt in cotton field and the emergence rate of cotton under the control of drip irrigation in winter
    WANG Xiaoyan, BAI Yungang, CHAI Zhongping, ZHENG Ming, DING Yu, LIU Hongbo, XIAO Jun, HAN Zhengyu
    2024, 61(4): 823-834.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.005
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    【Objective】 To find a more reasonable irrigation system in the dry cotton field area.【Methods】 Field experiments were carried out to study and analyze the dynamics of soil water, heat and salt and the emergence of cotton seedlings after drip irrigation in winter under different irrigation quotas and on the basis of different treatments in the next year. With the flood irrigation quota of 2,250 m3/hm2 as the control (CK), four gradient irrigation quotas were designed under the two irrigation modes of drip irrigation(D) and drip irrigation under the control of dry seeding and wet discharge(DG),4 drip irrigation quotais 600, 900, 1,200, 1,500 m3/hm2(D1,D2,D3,D4); Under the control of drip irrigation in winter, two irrigation quotas of dry seeding(D1G1,D2G2,D3G3, D4G4;The Errigation quota of G1,G2,G3 and G4 is 225(45+180)m3/hm2 ) and wet production were 0 and 225(45+180) m3/hm2, a total of 9 treatments.【Results】 The results showed that dry-sowing and wet-out could alleviate the sudden change of temperature and soil surface temperature in early spring, and the canal water in early spring would reduce the soil surface temperature by 1-2℃. The dry-sowing and wet-out had a significant impact on the temperature of 10 and 20 cm soil layers. Compared with CK treatment, the temperature of 10-20 cm soil layer after dry-sowing and wet-out treatment increased more gently. Compared with flood irrigation, drip irrigation was more uniform in water infiltration. The larger the irrigation quota of drip irrigation in winter, the more stable the soil temperature would be, the higher the average soil surface moisture content was, and the higher the surface moisture content would be after dry seeding and wetting. After 10 days of treatment, the volume water content of the surface layer with the irrigation quota of D4G4(1,500+225)m3/hm2 was still higher than that of other treatments. The average water content of the surface layer with the total irrigation amount of D3G3(1,200+225) m3/hm2 was higher than that of the CK treatment, and the total irrigation amount was 825 m3/hm2 less than that of the CK treatment. After dry-sowing and wet-out, the salt leaching effect of the narrow row surface layer was significant. The water infiltration and salt migration areas were concentrated in the 0-30 cm soil layer, and the root system of cotton was mainly distributed in the 0-30 cm soil layer at the germination stage. The larger the winter irrigation quota of drip irrigation, the more obvious the vertical leaching and movement of salt on the soil surface, and the more uniform the soil moisture content, the more likely the salt return phenomenon would be likely to occur. Adding dry seeding and wetting could timely supplement the moisture and suppress the salt return phenomenon. 【Conclusion】 The seedling emergence rate and seedling preservation rate of drip irrigation winter irrigation plus dry seeding are higher than that of drip irrigation winter irrigation only. The seedling emergence rate and seedling preservation rate of irrigation quota of D3G3(1,200+225) m3/hm2 are higher than that of ordinary flood irrigation.

    Effects of water and nitrogen on growth, yield and water and nitrogen utilization efficiency of resown Maize and verification of scheme optimization model
    ZHU Tao, Lei Qingyuan, MA Liang
    2024, 61(4): 835-844.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.006
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    【Objective】 This project intends to formulate a reasonable combined application scheme of water and nitrogen, and verify the practicability of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model based on analytic hierarchy process in field crop scheme optimization.Aiming at the high-efficiency and high-yield planting of Maize in the arid area of southern Xinjiang.【Methods】 Due to the arid climate, barren soil and low utilization rate of water and nitrogen in Xinjiang, the experiment of drip irrigation and fertilizer integration and joint regulation was carried out. Three horizontal gradients of irrigation water volume were set, which were 300 mm(W1), 400 mm(W2) and 500 mm(W3) respectively; Three horizontal gradients of nitrogen application rate were set, which were 0 kg/hm2(F0), 250 kg/hm2(F1) and 350 kg/hm2(F2),9 processes in total (W1F0、W1F1、W1F2、W2F0、W2F1、W2F2、W3F0、W3F1、W3F2). The effects of different water and nitrogen on plant height, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, yield and water and nitrogen utilization efficiency of maize under drip irrigation were measured and analyzed. In addition, combined with conventional analysis and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, the optimal water and nitrogen combined application scheme was sought and the model was verified.【Results】 Under the appropriate amount of irrigation and nitrogen application, there was an obvious interaction between water and nitrogen, which could improve the plant height, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and accumulation rate and yield of maize. The yield change was parabolic with the increase of nitrogen application and irrigation, and the yield increase efficiency decreased. Under the treatment of W2F1, the plant height, leaf area index, the dry matter accumulation did reach the maximum, the yield growth rate reached 24.35%, the water use efficiency reached the maximum value of 3.89 kg / m3, and the nitrogen use efficiency was second only to W3F1.【Conclusion】 The optimal irrigation and nitrogen application rates of maize water-saving and fertilizer saving production in Aksu area of Xinjiang are 400 mm and 250 kg / hm2(W2F1).

    Research of maize yield estimation based on unmanned aerial vehicle multispectral NDVI
    ZHANG Lei, YAO Mengyao, LIU Zhigang, LI Juan, YANG Yang, CAI Darun, CHEN Guo, LI Bo, LI Xiaorong, CHEN Xunji, ZHAI Yunlong
    2024, 61(4): 845-851.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.007
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    【Objective】 To explore the normalized difference vegetation index, an estimation model for maize yield,this study has provided a theoretical basis for the multispectral prediction of maize yield by field UAV. 【Methods】 Xinjiang eighteen spring-sown maize was taken as the research object, a multispectral image of the flowering period was obtained, and the actual spectral reflectance of the experimental area was obtained after radiometric correction, atmospheric correction, establishment of mask, extraction of NDVI map, and calculation of vegetation coverage, so as to obtain the actual value of normalized vegetation index. In addition to that, the NDVI value was fitted to the measured yield in the field. 【Results】 The power functions Y = 23,411.46-10,997.99 / X (R2 = 0.488,6), polynomial functions Y = 39,003.00-117,963.03X + 103,130.25X2 (R2 = 0.562,0), using partial least squares regression. The result was a linear function Y = 24,458.22X-9,620.55 (R2 = 0.722,2). 【Conclusion】 The results show that it has a certain correlation with maize yield, and the linear function model of NDVI value and yield during the critical period of maize growth.

    Effects of different spraying machinery and pesticide combination on the defoliation,the ripeness,yield and quality of cotton
    LIU Taijie, CHEN Bing, YANG Li, WANG Jing, ZHAO Jing, LI Xiang, TANG Guanglan, WANG Gang, HAN Huanyong, WANG Fangyong
    2024, 61(4): 852-860.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.008
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    【Objective】 To study the effects of spraying machinery and pesticide combination on cotton defoliation,ripeness,yield and quality,in the hope of providing reference for the rational use of UAV defoliant for improving the quality and efficiency of machine-picked cotton.【Methods】 Experiments on the different spraying machines to spray cotton defoliation were carried out,different machine types,chemical combinations and other treatments were set up to analyze the differences in cotton defoliation rate,branch hanging rate,boll opening rate,etc.【Results】 Under the same agent treatment,the elongation rate and branch hanging rate were shown as DJI T16 UAV> DJI T16 UAV > Locomotive DFH LX2204 and in terms of boll number per plant,lint,yield Micronaire value and elongation at break were XAG P30 UAV > DJI T16 UAV > Locomotive DFH LX2204.After adding the same anti-flying adjuvant,the defoliation rate,flocculation rate,boll number per plant and yield were all the same as those of XAG P30 UAV > DJI T16 UAV > Locomotive DFH LX2204,branch hanging rate,uniformity index and the fracture strength were shown as DJI T16 UAV > XAG P30 UAV > Locomotive DFH LX2204.Different UAV types T2 treatment(XAG P30 UAV + Zhenling + Auxiliary + Ethephon + Bedaton+CAU specific agent) and T5 treatment(DJI T16 UAV + Rettolone + Aviation + Ethephon + Bedaton) did the best.When it came to 20 days after spraying,the defoliation rate of T2 treatment and T5 treatment was 1.97% and 1.41% higher than that of the Locomotive spraying,and the flocculation rate was slightly lower by 0.51% and 1.52%,respectively; T2 treatment had the highest yield,and the seed cotton yield were 25.56% and 25.22% higher than that of locomotive spraying; the quality were better,while the average length,uniformity index and elongation of the upper half were 1.77%,2.23% and 3.34% lower than those of Locomotive spraying.The breaking strength and Micronaire value were 1.95% and 1.99% higher than those of the locomotive.【Conclusion】 Both kinds of defoliant combination sprayed by UAV can achieve better defoliation and ripening effect than that of Locomotive,slightly higher cotton yield than that of Locomotive,and improve some fiber quality parameters.In comprehensive consideration,T2 and T5 treatment are recommended to be popularized and applied in field mechanical cotton harvesting.

    Control effect of pyroxasulfone mixed with pendimethalin on broadleaf weeds in cotton filed and its safety evaluation
    QIAN Tao, WU Lili, LI Lei, Anniwaer Kuerban, DING Ruifeng
    2024, 61(4): 861-868.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.009
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    【Objective】 To confirm the control effect on the mixture of Pyroxasulfone and Pendimethalin to broadleaf weeds in cotton field. 【Methods】 Field trials were set up with mixture of 40% Pyroxasulfone SC and 330 g/L Pendimethalin EC to evaluate its safety to cotton and control effect on broadleaf weeds, such as Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium glaucum, Amaranthus retroflexus, Portulaca oleracea, Abutilon theophrasti.【Results】 The results showed that germination rate of cotton was 80.56%-83.61% in treatment of mixed herbicides, there were no significant differences between treatment and contrast. The dosage of 330 g a.i./L Pendimethalin EC 742.5 g a.i./hm2 were mixed with Pyroxasulfone SC 120, 180 and 240 g a.i./hm2 respectively, and their control effects of plant to broadleaf weeds were 89.15%, 92.03% and 97.83% after 30 days and 87.94%, 91.49% and 95.56% after 45 days, the control effects of fresh weigh to broadleaf weeds were 90.80%, 93.16% and 95.65% respectively, the compound-dose treatments were more efficient than single-dose treatments on control effects of plant and fresh weight to broadleaf weeds. The yield of each treatment increased 9.89%-16.45% compared with control.【Conclusion】 40% Pyroxasulfone SC 120-180g a.i./hm2 mixed with 330 g/L Pendimethalin EC are effective to control broadleaf weeds in cotton filed and safe to cotton.

    Effects of different priming treatments on seed vigor and physiological characteristics of spring wheat
    Gulinigaer Tuerhong, ZHANG Jinshan, LI Dandan, ZHANG Lulu, WANG Runqi, SHI Shubing
    2024, 61(4): 869-877.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.010
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    【Objective】 To study the effects of different seed priming on seed germination and seedling growth characteristics of spring wheat in the hope of providing theoretical basis for improving seed vitality of the wheat.【Methods】 Xinchun 26 wheat seeds were taken as the test material, and primed with different concentrations of SA (0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mmol/L), CaCl2 (6, 9, 12 mmol/L) and water for different time 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 h, respectively to measure the indexes such as the germination potential, germination rate, germination index, vigor index, fresh dry weight and length of seedling and root, electrical conductivity, SOD activity, POD activity, dehydrogenase activity and MDA content and other factors.【Results】 The results showed that the seed germination potential, germination rate, germination index, vigor index, fresh dry weight, seedling length and root length, SOD, POD, dehydrogenase activity and other indexes of spring wheat treated with different initiators were significantly increased compared with the control, and the electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content were significantly decreased, among which A2 and B1 treatments had the best effect. Under the condition of different priming time, germination index, seedling growth index and physiological index of each initiator treatment reached the maximum value at 12 h, and there was significant difference between them and other priming time.【Conclusion】 Seed priming enhances the enzyme activity of spring wheat seeds, effectively resists membrane peroxidation, reduces the content of membrane peroxidation products, maintains the integrity of cell structure, and effectively improves the seed activity of spring wheat, and promotes the growth of seedlings. Among them, 0.1 mmol/L SA and 6 mmol/L CaCl2 have the best effect on the priming time of 12 h.

    Effects of formula fertilizer on physiological growth and yield of drip irrigation maize
    FU Yanbo, BIAN Qingyong, WEI Yayuan, WEI Yanhong, ZHANG Wanxu, ZHU Jinquan
    2024, 61(4): 878-884.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.011
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (896KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To study the effect of formula fertilization on the physiological growth and yield of maize under drip irrigation in Southern Xinjiang. 【Methods】 Xinyu No. 31 was taken as the test material, a multi-point comparison and repeated test design was adopted. The test was set up with 4 treatments: (1) Formula fertilization treatment (OPT); N 15 kg/667m2, P2O5 11.5 kg/ 667m2, K2O 6 kg/667m2; (2) Formula fertilization without nitrogen treatment (OPT-N); N 0 kg/667m2, P2O5 11.5 kg/667m2, K2O 6 kg/667m2; (3) Formula fertilization without phosphorus treatment (OPT -P); N 15 kg/667m2, P2O5 0 kg/667m2, K2O 6 kg/667m2; (4) Formula fertilization without potassium treatment (OPT-P), N 15 kg/667m2, P2O5 0 kg/667m2, K2O 0 kg/667m2, and then the effects of different formula fertilization on the agronomic traits, photosynthetic characteristics (net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci)), yield and fertilizer of drip irrigation corn were analyzed, including the changes in utilization efficiency. 【Results】 (1) Formula fertilization showed the best effect on plant height, leaf area, photosynthetic characteristics and yield of maize in general. (2) Compared with formula fertilization without nitrogen treatment, formula fertilization without phosphorus treatment, formula fertilization without potassium treatment, the economic benefits were 602.4, 316.8 and 220.8 yuan/667m2 respectively. (3) There was a linear relationship between corn yield and net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, plant height, ear height, ear length, ear diameter, and bald tip length. Ear diameter and length of bald tip were also highly correlated with the yield. Net photosynthetic rate, ear length, ear diameter and length of bald tip could reflect its yield to a certain extent, while other indicators had correlations, they were not representative. 【Conclusion】 The technical combination of N 15 kg/mu, P2O5 11.5 kg/mu and K2O 6 kg/mu can be used as a cost-saving and efficient formula fertilization scheme for corn in southern Xinjiang.

    Comprehensive evaluation of kernel and quality traits in maize-teosinte introgression line population
    GAO Mutian, XIAO Yanmei, LIAO Zhijie, HUANG Cheng
    2024, 61(4): 885-891.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.012
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    【Objective】 To study the quality differences of maize-teosinte introgression line population in the hope of providing basis for breeding high-quality maize. 【Methods】 In this study, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were conducted to comprehensively evaluate the grains and quality traits of 866 families belonging to the maize-teosinte introgression line population. The traits analyzed included kernel length, kernel width, kernel thickness, and 100- kernel weight, as well as various quality-related traits such as protein, starch, soluble sugar, Lysine, phosphorus, and potassium. This comprehensive evaluation allowed us to gain insights into the genetic characteristics of these traits. 【Results】 The results showed that the 10 traits were characterized by richer variation, with coefficients of variation ranging from 6.401% to 20.451%. Kernel traits were mostly negatively correlated with quality traits, while all quality traits were positively correlated with each other except starch, protein and soluble sugar, which were negatively correlated. 10 better inbred lines were selected, in which all of the 3 rd taxon were inclusive. 【Conclusion】 The kernel and quality traits of each family line in this group have different degrees of correlation, which can be used to select materials according to their correlation in the subsequent yield and quality breeding. Meanwhile, the inbred materials with good performance in starch, soluble sugar and kernel weight can be used as the core germplasm resources for subsequent breeding.

    Agricultural Product Analysis and Detection·Soil Fertilizer·Agricultural Product Processing Engineering
    Change and association analysis of five heavy metals in melon plants at different growth stages
    MA Ling, SHEN Qi, KANG Qi, ZHANG Zhongxiang, JIA Hongtao, WANG Cheng
    2024, 61(4): 892-899.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.013
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    【Objective】 To determine the enrichment and distribution of five heavy metals in melon plants. 【Methods】 From June 26 to July 25, ICP-MS was used to determine Cu, Cd, As, Cd, Cr and Ni analyzed the distribution of five heavy metals in different growth stages. Furthermore, through the percentage of the enrichment coefficient of five heavy metals in each plant, the change and the correlation of five heavy metals in melon plants were explored.【Results】 From June 26 to July 25, The enrichment assignments of Cr, Ni and As were distributed by root> leaf> stem> stem> fruit; In contrast, the enrichment of Cu from 26 June to 25 and Cd from 26 June to July 16 was assigned leaf> root> stem> fruit; with the extension of time, the proportion of Cr, As, and Cd increased first and then decreased and the proportion of Ni and Cu showed a downwards trend. When the enrichment allocation of fruit Cr, As, Cu and Ni increased, the enrichment allocation of these four heavy metals in the roots tended to decrease, while the enrichment allocation of Cr, As and Ni in the leaves increased. Meanwhile, there was a decreasing trend in the Cd and Cu. 【Conclusion】 The above results show that the distribution, enrichment proportion of the five kinds of heavy metals in melon plants and the related sites is different according to the different types of heavy metals.

    Effects of salt stress on ion balance, membrane lipid peroxidation, and osmotic regulation substance accumulation in thin skin muskmelon ‘Huishu’
    YANG Wenli, XU Lirong, LIU Bin, LING Yueming, LI Meihua, YANG Yong, FAN Rong, LI Yushun, ZHANG Yongbin, ZHANG Xuejun
    2024, 61(4): 900-907.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.014
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    【Objective】 To explore the physiological response mechanism of thin-skinned melon ‘Huishu’ to salt (NaCl) stress and provide theoretical basis for melon cultivation, demonstration and promotion. 【Methods】 In this study, a substrate pot experiment was conducted to observe the changes in seedling growth, ion homeostasis, antioxidant enzyme system, and osmoregulation substances after 100 mmol/L NaCl short-term stress (5 d) and long-term stress (20 d).【Results】 Salt stress inhibited seedling growth, destroyed ion balance and antioxidant systems. The plant height, petiole length, and leaf number decreased significantly with the prolongation of salt stress time, while the diameter, petiole diameter, and leaf thickness increased significantly with the prolongation of salt stress time. After salt stress, the Na+ efflux velocity decreased, the Na+ content increased, the K+ outflow velocity increased, and the K+ content decreased. The content of malondialdehyde increased significantly. The content of malondialdehyde significantly increased, and the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT enzymes first increased and then decreased; the content of soluble sugar, soluble protein, and free proline increased significantly. 【Conclusion】 Under salt stress, the thin-skinned melon ‘Huishu’ responds to salt stress by limiting its own growth, increasing the Na+ content and reducing the K+ content of its leaves, improving the antioxidant enzyme system, and accumulating more osmoregulation substances.

    Effects of delayed precooling combined with hydrogen peroxide fumigation on storage quality and physiological characteristics of flat peach
    LI Ziqin, LI Wenqi, Chen Ya, ZHANG Zhenghong, DANG Fumin, ZHAO Zhiyong, LEI Yongdong
    2024, 61(4): 908-915.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.015
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    【Objective】 To study the effects of delayed precooling and hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) fumigation on the quality and physiological characteristics of flat peach during storage.【Methods】 After stacking in the shade for 0,2,4 and 6 hours,the samples were pre-cooled to 2℃ by tunnel-type in-situ differential pressure equipment and fumigated with 1% H2O2 for 5 minutes,respectively,and stored in a fresh-keeping storehouse with (0±0.5)℃ and 85% relative humidity,the physiological indexes of fruits were measured every 7 days.【Results】 The time required for the fruits to precool to the target temperature by differential pressure at 0 and 2 h was shorter than that at 4 and 6 h.delayed precooling combined with H2O2 fumigation inhibited the respiration of fruits,the rate of decay,the rate of weight loss and the activity of PPO were decreased,the activity of CAT was increased,the hardness,the content of soluble solids and vitamin C were maintained,and the ability of scavenging free radicals was enhanced,which inhibited the increase of MDA content and browning of fruit flesh,kept the integrity of fruit cell membrane,delayed the aging process of fruit and improved the fresh quality of fruit.【Conclusion】 The storage quality of flat peach can be improved by post-harvest pre-cooling combined with proper preservatives.The earlier the pre-cooling time,the better the retention of nutrients and flavor substances of fruits.

    Effect of magnesium sulfate fertilizer application strategy on the yield and quality of processed tomato
    RUAN Xiangyang, PU Min, XIAO Lele, LUO Linyi, CHEN Ruijie, LI Ran, CHEN Guoyong, YE Jun
    2024, 61(4): 916-925.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.016
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    【Objective】 To study the effects of magnesium fertilizer application times and distribution ratio on the yield and quality of processed tomatoes under calcareous soil conditions and screen the suitable magnesium fertilizer application scheme.【Methods】 The field experiment was carried out with Jinfan 3166 and magnesium sulfate as experimental materials, and four treatments were set up: (1) 3 times of fertilization + front weight (50% magnesium sulfate was applied at seedling stage, DS3O); (2) 3 times of fertilization + post weight (50% magnesium sulfate was applied at the swelling stage, DS3E); (3) 6 times of fertilization + front weight (DS6O); (4) 6 times of fertilization + post weight (DS6E).【Results】 The stem diameter, chlorophyll content and dry matter accumulation of processed tomatoes were significantly increased by increasing the number of times of magnesium fertilizer drip application (6 times) and the high proportion of magnesium fertilizer application in the later stage ("post weight "). At the same time, the greater the dosage of magnesium fertilizer (the larger the distribution ratio of magnesium fertilizer), the higher the nitrogen and magnesium content in the processed tomato fruit and the lower the calcium content. The yield and quality of processed tomatoes were significantly increased when the times of magnesium fertilizer drip application and the proportion of magnesium fertilizer late application were high ("post weight ")【Conclusion】 The highest yield and the best quality of processed tomatoes are obtained when the amount of magnesium sulfate is 450 kg/hm2, 6 times of drip application and the distribution ratio is post-weight(DS6E).

    Nutritional quality analysis and comprehensive evaluation of different chamagu(Brassica rapa L.) varieties
    ZHANG Jiatuo, SONG Zhanteng, Maerhaba Paerhati, LI Jing, WANG Hui, ZHANG Ruili, ZHU Jingrong
    2024, 61(4): 926-936.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.017
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    【Objective】 This study aims to characterize the differences in nutritional and functional components of different varieties of chamagu(Brassica rapa L.) in Keping county, comprehensively evaluate the quality characteristics of chamagu, and provide theoretical support for the development of high-quality chamagu germplasm resources.【Methods】 In the present study, four chamagu varieties, white little chamagu, yellow chamagu, purple chamagu, and white big chamagu were used as experimental materials. 34 basic nutritional indexes and 3 functional indicators, including crude fiber, total sugar, soluble solids, protein, amino acids, and multiple mineral elements, were measured. Furthermore, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis methods were used for the comprehensive quality evaluation of chamagu in Keping County, Xinjiang.【Results】 The results show that there were no significant differences in water content among the basic nutritional indexes of the samples, but significant differences in crude fiber, titratable acid, total sugar, reducing sugar, sucrose, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, protein, amino acids, and mineral element indexes. The content of crude polysaccharide, total flavonoids, and saponin in functional index also had significant difference. There are correlations among all quality indicators. Principal component analysis suggests that 4 principal components were extracted and the cumulative contribution rate reached 98.882%, which could reflect most of the information of the original quality index. The yellow chamagu has the highest comprehensive score ranking, followed by white little chamagu, purple chamagu, and white big chamagu ranked third and fourth, respectively.【Conclusion】 In summary, the basic nutritional and functional components of different chamagu varieties exhibit intervarietal differences, while water and total amino acid content were basically stable among different varieties. There are very significant (P<0.01) or significant (P<0.05) correlations among quality indicators in different chamagu samples. Based on the above indexes of basic nutrition and functional components and comprehensive evaluation, it was concluded that the best quality variety was yellow chamagu.

    Plant Protection·Microbes·Agricultural Equipment Engineering and Mechanization
    Ultrastructural observations of leg sensilla in Eupeodes corollae using scanning electron microscopy
    WU Jinan, DONG Wanying, LIU Tongxian, WANG Bing, WANG Guirong
    2024, 61(4): 937-944.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.018
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    【Objective】 The objective of this study is to elucidate the types, features, and distribution of leg sensilla in female adult Eupeodes corollae, in the hope of providing a morphological foundation for further studying on the egg-laying selection mechanism of the natural enemy E. corollae. 【Methods】 Using scanning electron microscopy, the ultrastructure of leg sensilla in female E. corollae adults was observed. 【Results】 The results showed that the legs of female adults of E. corollae consisted of six segments, including coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia, tarsus, and pretarsus. In total, five types of sensilla were distributed on the legs: sensilla basiconica (subtypes I, II, and III), sensilla trichodea (long sensilla trichodea subtypes I and II; short sensilla trichodea subtypes I and II), sensilla chaetica (subtypes I and II), Böhm bristles, and microtrichiae. Sensilla basiconica (SB) were exclusively located on the tarsus, and one subtype SB I had a pore at its tip, suggesting a crucial function in chemoreception. Sensilla trichodea and sensilla chaetica were distributed on the femur, tibia, and tarsus of legs in female adult. These two types of sensilla had the longitudinal furrows on their hairy surface, no wall pore, and a movable socket at the base, which were characteristic features of mechanosensilla. The number of Böhm bristles and microtrichiae were large and widely distributed around various types of sensilla. 【Conclusion】 In this study, five types of sensilla are identified on the leg of female E. corollae. The abundance and diverse types of sensilla are found in the tarsus segments of the legs, denoting their critical role in chemosensory perception.

    Correlation and regression analysis between leaf margin scorch diseases and leaf nutrient content of walnut
    Mahemuti Abulaiti, Muhetaer zhare, Mireguli Waili, Hadier Yishake
    2024, 61(4): 945-953.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.019
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    【Objective】 To explore the main factors related to walnut leaf margin scorch disease, and provide theoretical reference for the mechanism research and control measures of leaf margin scorch disease. 【Methods】 The main walnut varieties Xinfeng and Zha-343 in Xinjiang were taken as the research objects, and the wild walnut in Xinjiang was taken as the control material. The SPAD value, total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and other indicators of the leaves of two walnut cultivars with different scorched leaves were mainly measured, the correlation analysis and regression analysis were conducted among the indicators. 【Results】 The leaf SPAD values of the two walnut cultivars decreased slowly with the aggravation of the degree of leaf scorch. There was no significant difference between the SPAD values of Xinfeng normal leaves (CK) and that of wild walnut normal leaves (T-CK). The SPAD values of Zha-343 normal leaves (CK) were significantly lower than that of T-CK, and the SPAD values of 'Xinfeng' leaves under different treatments were significantly higher than that of Zha-343. Different nutrient contents in the leaves of the two walnut varieties showed varying degrees of change with the aggravation of leaf scorch degree. Among them, N and Ca in the leaves of Xinfeng walnut showed an upward trend, P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Cu showed a downward trend, Zn showed an upward trend first and then a downward trend, and the degree of scorched leaves of Xinfeng walnut was significantly negatively correlated with its SPAD value, K, Mg and Cu contents. There was an extremely significant positive correlation with Ca content, N and Ca in leaves of Zha-343 walnut showed an upward trend, K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Cu showed a downward trend, P and Zn showed an upward trend first and then a downward trend, in which the negative correlation between SPAD value, Fe and Cu in leaves and their scorched degree reached an extremely significant level, and the positive correlation between Ca content in leaves and their scorched degree reached an extremely significant level. That the order of the factors affecting the scorching degree of Xinfeng leaves was Cu > Ca, and the regression equation was Y =10.968-2.193 X1 + 4.388 X2; The order of factors affecting the scorching degree of Zha-343 leaves is Cu > K > P, and the regression equation was Y' = 215.075-2.366 X'1 - 7.902 X'2 - 33.966 X'3. 【Conclusion】 In arid areas, after the leaf edges of Xinfeng and Zha-343 walnuts start to scorch, the absorption of Cu, Ca, K, and P in the leaves is significantly affected.

    Correlation analysis of main environmental impact factors based on remote sensing and Apocheima cinerarius Erschoff emergence
    GUO Zhengyu, SUN Qian, HU Xinyue, HUANG Jinyi
    2024, 61(4): 954-963.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.020
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    【Objective】 To study the effects of surface temperature and soil water content on the emergence of Apocheima cinerarius Erschoff, and to provide theoretical basis for improving the efficiency of pest control and reducing the cost of pest control. 【Methods】 In this study, the development zone of Karamay,Xinjiang, was taken as an example, select 12 representative forest areas(P0-P11). Based on the measured data of the emergence of Apocheima cinerarius Erschoff, the satellite data of surface temperature and soil moisture content, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics and trends of the emergence of Apocheima cinerarius Erschoff were analyzed by trend analysis, correlation and regression analysis, and the effects of surface temperature and soil moisture content on its emergence in the spatial and temporal dimensions were discussed. 【Results】 (1)The pest damage of Apocheima cinerarius Erschoff was the most serious in P3, P4, P10 and P11, and the pest damage level of P6 was always low. (2)The daily emergence of Apocheima cinerarius Erschoff was positively correlated with surface temperature and negatively correlated with soil water content, and this correlation was mainly concentrated before the peak day of emergence. (3)The negative correlation between the soil water content and the daily emergence of Apocheima cinerarius Erschoff at P5, P7 and P8 was larger.(4)Before the peak of emergence in 2021, the surface temperature mainly affected the soil moisture content through the evaporation effect and indirectly affected the emergence process, while the surface temperature in 2022 mainly affected the emergence directly. 【Conclusion】 The effects of surface temperature and soil water content on the emergence of Apocheima cinerarius Erschoff are a comprehensive effect.Within the range of soil temperature and humidity suitable for the emergence of Apocheima cinerarius Erschoff, the increase of surface temperature or the decrease of soil water content will promote the emergence, and vice versa, it will inhibit the emergence, and this effect is mainly concentrated before the peak day of emergence. In the spatial dimension, the soil water content in the stands of P5, P7 and P8 has a great negative correlation with the daily emergence of Apocheima cinerarius Erschoff. Therefore, artificial irrigation can be carried out in these areas to inhibit the occurrence of Apocheima cinerarius Erschoff.

    Analysis of the spatial distribution pattern of Agrilus planipennis in different forest types
    GE Weiqi, HU An, WANG Degang, XU Zhenghong, LIU Changyue, HE Mengya, TANG Yongqing, WANG Pu, WANG Shaoshan
    2024, 61(4): 964-970.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.021
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    【Objective】 To clarify the geostatistical spatial patterns of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire under different ash types in the hope of providing theoretical guidance for the prevention and control of A. planipennis under different ash types. 【Methods】 Under four different forest types, the number of A. planipennis was determined by using the A. planipennis feathering pores as the investigation index, and the spatial patterns of A. planipennis under different forest types were studied.【Results】 The results showed that the fitting model of A. planipennis urban green forest and highway green forest was Gaussian model, the fitting model of park mixed forest was exponential model, and the fitting model in street forest was linear model. The spatial distribution patterns of green forest, park mixed forest and highway green forest were clustered distribution, and the spatial distribution pattern of street forest was random distribution.【Conclusion】 Through the geostatistical investigation and analysis of the population of A. planipennis under four forest types, it is shown that when the harm of A. planipennis reaches a certain level, the stand type could not change the aggregation habit of A. planipennis, but it has an impact on the parameters and Variogram function values of the fitted model. The urban green forest and highway green forest in the contour map reflect the hazard of A. planipennis, which is the trend of A. planipennis spreading from the edge to the inside. The mixed forest in the park shows a strip-like distribution according to its planting characteristics. The street forest shows the characteristics of random distribution. The different hazard characteristics of A. planipennis are related to the forest stand type.

    Research of parasitoids of Sphaerolecanium prunastri fonscolombe in the western Tianshan wild fruit forest
    CAO Zhujun, ZHANG Zhenyu, KANG Ning, ZHAO Qian, HU Hongying
    2024, 61(4): 971-983.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.022
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    【Objective】 The aim of this study is to identify the parasitoids resources of the important invasive species Sphaerolecanium prunastri Fonscolombe in the wild fruit forests of the Western Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang in the hope of providing an important basis for the subsequent control of this invasive pest using native parasitoids.【Methods】 In this study, parasitic enemies of S. prunastri were obtained by laboratory rearing of field-collected hosts and were classified using morphological and DNA barcoding methods.【Results】 A total of 7 parasitoids were obtained, among which 3 species (Discodes coccophagus Ratzeburg, Microterys hortulanus Erdös, and Aprostocetus trjapitzini Kostjukov) were new records for China. Additionally, this study provided the barcode sequences of the 28S rDNA and COI genes of the 7 parasitoids and their Genebank accession numbers.【Conclusion】 The Pachyneuron solitarium (Hartig) is the dominant parasitoid on Prunus divaricata Ldb., and M. hortulanus is the dominant parasitoid on Armeniaca vulgaris Lamarck.

    Analysis of the antennal transcriptome and differentially expressed genes of female and male Monolepta signata
    HE Wanjie, MENG Hanying, ZHI Mengting, CHEN Jing
    2024, 61(4): 984-995.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.023
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    【Objective】 To establish the transcriptome database of adult Monolepta signata antennae, screen the differentially expressed genes in the antennae of female and male M. signata and analyze the physiological functions of these genes. 【Methods】 In this study, Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was used to conduct transcriptome sequencing on the antennae of male and female M. signata and analyze the functional annotation and pathway enrichment of unigenes, and after that the expression level of odorant binding protein genes in antennae was detected by RT-qPCR. 【Results】 A total of 73,050 unigenes were obtained from the antennae transcriptome sequencing of female and male of adult M. signata, with the percentage of Q30 bases above 93.23, and 34,233 unigenes were annotated in at least one database (46.86%). A total of 395 differentially expressed genes were detected in the antennae of male M. signata compared with that of female M. signata. Among them, 288 genes were up-regulated and 107 genes were down-regulated.【Conclusion】 In the GO database, the most significant function of enrichment of these differentially expressed genes were odorant binding, olfactory receptor activity, and sensory perception of smell. RT-qPCR results showed that the relative expression levels of odorant binding protein genes in antennae of female and male M. signata were consistent with the transcriptome sequencing results. The transcriptome database of the antenna of adult M. signata is successfully obtained.

    Population structure and geographical distribution of wild Awei mushroom compound group in Xinjiang
    TIAN Meng, JIA Wenjie, Nuerziya Yalimaimaiti, LUO Ying, JIA Peisong, NI Zhiyong
    2024, 61(4): 996-1002.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.024
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    【Objective】 To clarify the population composition, geographical distribution, and natural reserve of the composite population resources of wild Awei mushroom in Xinjiang in the hope of providing theoretical support for the conservation, development, and utilization of wild Awei Mushroom resources. 【Methods】 The regional investigation and collection of wild Awei mushroom compound group resources in Xinjiang were carried out by adopting the method of combining general survey and sample survey. The species of isolated strains were identified by molecular biotechnology. Combined with statistical analysis, the population composition, distribution area, and quantitative change trend of wild resources in Xinjiang were clarified. 【Results】 The wild Awei mushroom composite group resources in Xinjiang are composed of Pleurotus tuoliensis and P. eryngii var. ferulae. P. tuoliensis was the dominant population, accounting for 97.23% of the total identified, and P. eryngii var. ferulae was the weak population, accounting for 2.77%. The distribution areas of the wild P. tuoliensis resources in Xinjiang included Shihezi, Tuoli, Yumin, Emin, Fuhai, Fuyun and Qinghe, and the wild P. eryngii var. ferulae resource in Xinjiang was only distributed in Tuoli, Yumin, and Emin. The natural population of wild P. tuoliensis resources had a downward trend in general, and there were great differences in distribution areas, among them, Tuoli, Shihezi and Emin had the largest decline, and only 1 or 0 plant was collected when the annual collection quantity was the lowest in the sample area. 【Conclusion】 The wild Awei mushroom composite group resources in Xinjiang are composed of Pleurotus tuoliensis and P. eryngii var. ferulae. P. tuoliensis is the dominant population. The overall natural reserves of wild Pleurotus tuoliensis and P. eryngii var. ferulae are showing a downward trend.

    Effect of cephalosporin residue organic fertilizer on resistant bacteria and related resistance genes in maize soil
    LIU Wanqin, YI Yuanyang, PENG Xiaowu, XIE Fang, GU Meiying, ZHANG Zhidong
    2024, 61(4): 1003-1010.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.025
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    【Objective】 To explore the effect of cephalosporin residue organic fertilizer on the abundance of drug-resistant bacteria and related resistance genes in the maize soil, and to provide scientific basis for biological safety evaluation in the application of cephalosporin residue organic fertilizer. 【Methods】 Three experimental groups were set up, which included none organic fertilize treatment (CK), the organic fertilizer treatments with 500 kg/667 m2 (B1) and with 1000 kg/667 m2 (B2), respectively. The antibiotic resistant bacteria and related antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) with different treatments were analyzed by using the cultivable method and the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. 【Results】 The results showed that the total number of bacteria was significantly increased in the treatments with cephalosporin residue organic fertilizer, and the number of cefradine resistant bacteria was significantly increased in the treatments at corn seedling stage as well. Forty-one strains of antibiotic-resistant strains were obtained, among which 8 cefradine resistant strains belonged to 6 genera. 【Conclusion】 The relative abundance of ARGs genes in corn seedling soil was significantly increased in the treatments with cephalosporin residue organic fertilizer. There were no significant effects on the relative abundance of blaTEM gene in the treatments at the fruiting stage, and none regular influence on other drug-resistant genes.

    Screening and identification of a Streptomyces strain with quorum sensing inhibitory activity and effect of the crude extracts on virulence factors of Erwinia amylovora
    BAI Xiaoyu, ZHU Liying, BAO Huifang, JIANG Ling, ZHU Jing, GU Meiying, Zhu Yanlei, ZHANG Zhidong
    2024, 61(4): 1011-1020.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.026
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    【Objective】 To explore the potential metabolisms for natural product compounds from actinomycetes in the arid area and investigate effect of the quorum sensing inhibition on virulence factors in Erwinia amylovora. 【Methods】 Chromobacterium violaceum 026 (CV026) was used for the screening model of the quorum sensing inhibitions, the fermentation of actinomycetes isolated from soils in arid areas around the Kumutag Desert was carried out, and the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of the fermentation broth was tested using the Oxford Cup method. The strain was identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and effect of crude extracts from the broth on virulence factors of Erwinia amylovora was measured. In addition to that, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to measure metabolites, and compounds with similar structure to reported quorum sensing inhibitors were selected to validate. 【Results】 Isolate K-9 was screened and identified to belong to the genus Streptomyces, which showed strong quorum sensing inhibitory activity and shared the highest similarities with Streptomyces rubradiris NBRC 14000T(99.72%). The crude extracts of the broth effectively reduced the violacein production of CV026 and the swimming ability of Erwinia amylovora. Virulence factors of Erwinia amylovora such as biofilm, pyocyanin and rhamnolipid were inhabited significantly with the concentration-dependent interactions. A total of 635 compounds were identified from the crude extract by LC-MS, and 5 compounds with significant quorum sensing inhibitory activity were observed. 【Conclusion】 Streptomyces sp. K-9 is one potential new species isolated from arid areas, whose fermentation metabolites shows obvious quorum sensing inhibitory activity, and can inhibit virulence factors produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, many kinds of novel quorum sensing inhibitors were obtained.

    Screening,identification and characteristics of Lactic acid bacteria from raw camel milk
    SUN Jian, LI Xue, CHU Min, GU Meiying, Ainijiang Ersiman, ZHU Jin, HE Qi, TAN Huilin, ZHANG Zhidong
    2024, 61(4): 1021-1028.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.027
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    【Objective】 To explore lactic acid bacteria (LAB) resources in raw camel milk. 【Methods】 Raw camel milk samples were collected around Nanshan mountain in Urumqi, Xinjiang and the strains were isolated by the plate dilution method. The 16S rRNA gene sequences and morphological observation were carried out to clarify the taxonomic status of the strains, and edible safety characteristics such as detecting hemolysis and harmful metabolites. 【Results】 Results showed that a total of 29 LAB strains were isolated and identified, which belonged to 4 species in Leuconostoc and Lentilactobacillus; the tested strains could tolerate 0.5% bile salt, 5% NaCl, and showed good high temperature resistance, milk peptonization, anti-oxidation, different enzyme activities, and antibacterial properties. None of strains were positive for hemolysis and produce nitroreductase. No biogenic amines were produced from amino acids by strains except T12.【Conclusion】 The LAB obtained from camel milk in this study has good fermentation characteristics and food safety.

    Design and experiment of stress and strain monitoring system for soil loosening device based on wireless communication technology
    DONG Zhaosen, ZHANG Jiaxi, ZHOU Xin, LUO Wenjie, JIANG Yongxin, GUO Gang
    2024, 61(4): 1029-1040.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2024.04.028
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    【Objective】 The main component of the drum type residual film recovery machine is prone to heap soil and deformation in the process of operation. It is of great significance to monitor its stress and strain, improve the working efficiency of the residual film recovery machine and reduce the failure rate of the residual film recovery machine. 【Methods】 The strain monitoring system of soil teeth was designed, the monitoring point was determined by ANSYS analysis, the sensor was calibrated by DH5922N data analyzer, and the strain signal acquisition unit measured the stress and strain of the small deformation of soil teeth, realizing the continuous monitoring of the stress and strain data of soil teeth, and giving early warning to the overloading condition of soil teeth rake. 【Results】 The real-time monitoring of stress and strain of the pine rake could be carried out effectively, and the field operation speed was simulated. The mild overload threshold was determined to be 140 Mpa, and the severe overload threshold to be 180 Mpa. The overall average relative error of the monitoring results was 10.12%. 【Conclusion】 The stress and strain monitoring system of soil rake is mainly composed of six parts: Microprocessor, strain signal acquisition unit, AD analog-to-digital conversion, power module, communication module and cloud platform visual interface.