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    作物遗传育种·耕作栽培·生理生化·种质资源
    Effects of Different Row Spacing on Boll Formation and Yield and Quality of Mulching Cotton
    LIU Jintao, GUO Zixuan, CAO Juan, LI Zhipeng, WAN Sumei, LI Yabing, ZHAI Yunlong, MAO Tingyong
    2022, 59(5): 1041-1050.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.001
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2242KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To study the effects of different row spacing on the occurrence of reproductive organs, yield and spatial distribution of cotton bolls under the cultivation technique without plastic film mulching in the hope of providing the basis for screening the reasonable row spacing arrangement of plastic-free cotton in southern Xinjiang. 【Method】 In this study, Zhong 619 and Xinluzhong 82 were used as experimental materials, and the width of 2.28 m was taken as the standard. One picture with three lines (76 cm+76 cm), four lines (76 cm+10 cm+76 cm) and six lines (10 cm+66 cm+10 cm+66 cm+10 cm) were set up. 【Result】 The occurrence probability of the whole reproductive organs at each fruit branch and node of cotton was the highest under the pattern of one picture with four lines. The physiological reproduction of Zhong 619 and Xin 82 were at the same level under a three-row cultivation mode. There were 12.8 bolls per plant and 2.608 g lint per boll in a four-row plot, and the yield (6,259.8 kg/hm2) was not significantly different from that in a six-row plot (6,748.3 kg/hm2) of the same variety. From bolling to autumn peach period, the overall spatial distribution of cotton bolls increased at first and then decreased. With the increase of cotton rows, the distribution of cotton bolls changed from outward extension to inward concentration in horizontal position, and the spatial distribution of cotton bolls appeared "lower void". In the vertical direction, cotton withering shifted from the fallen fruit branch to the second fruit node of the middle fruit branch of cotton plant, and the number of budding and flowering of cotton decreased. 【Conclusion】 Under the conventional planting row spacing configuration of cotton in southern Xinjiang, Zhong 619 has more bolls in four rows per picture, lower shedding rate and stable yield, and its index is superior to Xinluzhong 82, which shows the best comprehensive performance.

    Crop Genetics and Breeding·Cultivation Physiology·Physiology and Biochemistry·Germplasm Resources
    Effects of Water - Nitrogen Coupling on Soil Water Distribution and Yield in Cotton Field
    XU Yanjun, LIAN Weijia, LIU Xiangyu, Slayidin Smayi, TANG Qiuju, Ernival Abdulah
    2022, 59(5): 1051-1059.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.002
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (951KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 Research Effects of Water - Nitrogen Coupling on Soil Water Distribution and Yield in Cotton Field. 【Methods】 The split zone test design was adopted, with irrigation amount as the main area, with 2,250.0 m3/hm2( low irrigation),3,450.0 m3/hm2( traditional irrigation) and 4,650.0 m3/hm2( high irrigation), with three irrigation amounts (expressed as W1,W2 and W3). kg/hm2(0 blank), 300.0 kg/hm2 (traditional fertilizer application) and 600.0 kg/hm2 (high nitrogen application), three pure nitrogen inputs (expressed in N1, N2 and N3) were used to carry out field experiments in dry inland cotton areas of northwest China. The effects of different water and nitrogen treatments on the growth and final yield of cotton plants were evaluated by measuring soil moisture, salt content, dry matter accumulation of cotton plants in different periods and final yield under different treatments. 【Results】 The results showed that the salt and water consumption in soil under W3N2 treatment was 64.2% higher and 92.4% higher than those in W1N1 treatment. Under the combination of W3N3 water and nitrogen application, the boll number, boll quality and seed cotton yield of cotton plants reached the highest, which was 30.0% higher than that of W1N1 treatment. 【Conclusion】 It is not that the higher the application of water and fertilizer, the better the growth trend and the higher the yield. On the contrary, the relatively low combination of water and fertilizer application provides more favorable conditions for the growth and development of cotton, which not only provides theoretical basis for field water and fertilizer management, but also effectively controls the amount of water and fertilizer application, which is of great significance in increasing production and income and environmental protection.

    Effects of Regulators on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics in Cotton Seedling during Restoration after Chilling Stress
    ZHOU Xiaoyun, Adalaiti Abduriyimu, WANG Lihong, LI Jin, ZHANG Jungao, LIU Mengli, LEI Bin, BO Rui
    2022, 59(5): 1060-1067.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.003
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1376KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 After chilling stress, cotton seedlings were sprayed with plant growth regulators to explore the repair effects of different plant growth regulators on chilling stress of cotton seedlings, so as to provide technical reference for cotton seedlings to resist chilling. 【Methods】 The cotton variety 'Xinluzao 57' was treated at 4℃ for 24 hours at the cotyledon stage by artificial simulated chilling environment. The leaves were sprayed with clear water as the control, and 7 different plant regulator solutions were sprayed respectively. The effects of growth regulators on the growth and physiological and biochemical characteristics of cotton seedlings during restoration after chilling Stress were analyzed. 【Results】 The results showed that compared with the control, after spraying growth regulator, the plant height of cotton seedlings increased by 5.10% - 9.87%, stem diameter increased by 5.28% - 8.71%, root length increased by 5.24% - 9.33%, fresh weight increased by 2.26% - 5.98%, dry weight increased by 2.38% - 8.61%, chilling injury index decreased by 1.79% - 5.29%, the content of proline increased by 5.04% - 5.58%, the content of soluble protein increased by 5.07% - 5.67%, the content of soluble sugar increased by 5.05% - 5.87%, SOD activity increased by 3.79%-5.56%, POD enzyme activity increased by 2.18%-5.56%, CAT enzyme activity increased by 2.21% - 7.95%.【Conclusion】 After chilling stress, spraying growth regulators on the leaves during the recovery of normal temperature can effectively improve the osmotic adjustment ability and antioxidant ability of cotton seedling leaves, promote plant growth and repair the damage to the plant caused by chilling stress. This is a convenient and practical agronomic measure to improve the resistance of cotton to chilling. For the cotton area in Xinjiang where chilling damage occurs frequently in early spring, the technology of using plant growth regulator to improve the chilling resistance of cotton seedlings has a certain application prospect. Among them, the comprehensive effects of regulators on the restoration of cotton seedlings after chilling stress are as follows: "ATAILIN" > α- Sodium naphthylacetate >Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate> "BIHU" > Compound Sodium Nitrophenolate > Humic acid >Potassium fulvic acid type II >Control.

    Effects of Three Methanol Extracts from Plant on Stem Properties,Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield of Wheat
    ZHENG Ruiming, ZHOU Xiaoyun, LI Jin, ZHANG Jungao, CHENG Yong, MA Deying, LIANG Jing, GONG Jingyun, LEI Bin
    2022, 59(5): 1068-1076.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.004
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1457KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To evaluate the growth regulating activities of methanol extracts from Sophraalopecuroides, Cuminum cyminum and Vallisneria natans on wheat so as to provide experimental and theoretical basis for the development of new plant-derived growth regulators. 【Methods】 Spring wheat variety Xinchun 44 was used as experimental material with water treatment as control; The wheat was sprayed three times in the early stage of wheat jointing by the methanol extracts from Sophraalopecuroides, Cuminum cyminum and Vallisneria natans and prepared into three different solutions with concentrations (1%, 0.1% and 0.01%), respectively. After that, the effects of higher stem properties, photosynthetic characteristics and yield of wheat were analyzed and the extracts with good effect were screened and evaluated by principal component analysis. 【Results】 Compared with the control, after treatment with 0.01% methanol extracts from Vallisneria natans, the length of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd internodes in the base of wheat were decreased by 27.80%, 13.40% and 4.50%, respectively; The stem diameter were increased by 10.30%, 16.10% and 14.30% respectively; The content of IAA in basal 3 sections was increased by 16.16%; The content of ABA in basal 3section was decreased by 7.89%; Plant height was decreased by 5.60%; The net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves was increased by 3.90%; The SPAD value of flag leaves was increased by 6.20%; 1,000-grain weight, grain weight and bulk density were increased by 2.82%, 24.69% and 3.64%, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the effect of the treatment with 0.01% methanol extracts from Vallisneria natans was significantly better than those of other treatment groups. 【Conclusion】 Three low concentration methanol extracts from Sophraalopecuroides, Cuminum cyminum and Vallisneria natans have different growth regulation effects on wheat, which can shorten the internode length and increase the stem diameter, can enhance the lodging resistance of wheat, can also reduce the plant height of wheat, and can improve the ventilation and light transmission conditions in the field thus improving the photosynthesis of flag leaves, the utilization rate of light energy as well as the yield of crops. Among them, the treatment effect of 0.01% methanol extracts from Vallisneria natans is the best.

    Application of Chemical Fertilizer Combined with Manure Improves Maize Yield, Nitrogen Absorption and Grain Zinc Content
    LI Yali, Harihash Yibati, YU Jinli, LI Qingjun
    2022, 59(5): 1077-1083.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.005
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (845KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To regulated the growth and nutritional status of maize during the application period of N, P and K under the condition of chemical fertilizer combined with organic fertilizer in the hope of providing technical support for reducing application and increasing efficiency of maize. 【Methods】 Five treatments were set up and repeated for 3 times, CK: no fertilization; PK: apply phosphorus and potassium fertilizer without nitrogen fertilizer; NPK: apply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer; NPKZn: apply nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and zinc fertilizer; NPKM: apply nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizer and organic fertilizer. 【Result】 The two-year experiment showed that compared with farmers' customary fertilization, chemical fertilizer combined with organic fertilizer increased corn yield by 6.5%, N absorption by 4.5% and grain Zn concentration by 3.3 mg/kg. 【Conclusion】 The combination of chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer can significantly increase maize yield, N absorption and Zn concentration in grain, which is an effective measure to reduce the application of chemical fertilizer.

    Analysis of Agronomic Characters of Cotton Varieties in Xinjiang
    ZHANG Zhe, Rebiye Yusun, Maimaiti Moming, Wumaierjiang Kurban, AI Xiantao, GAO Shan
    2022, 59(5): 1084-1092.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.006
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (883KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 This project aims to select varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting through the study on the agronomic characters of the main cotton varieties in Xinjiang. 【Methods】 The variation, correlation, principal component and cluster analysis of 12 agronomic characters of 100 cotton varieties in Xinjiang were carried out. 【Results】 Analysis of variation found that among the 12 agronomic traits, there were 7 traits with variation greater than 10%, whose leaf branches were (64.0%), boll number (25.8%), length of the first fruit node of the upper fruit branch (20.2%), boll rate (17.1%), length of the first fruit node of the middle fruit branch (16.8%), boll number per plant (16.0%) and height of the first fruit node of the fruit branch (11.5%). Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between growth period and plant height, and a very significant negative correlation with the number of bolls per plant and the number of bolls. The plant height was positively correlated with the number of fruit branches, the height of the initial node of fruit branches and the number of bolls per plant. The included angle of fruit branch (middle included angle, the same as below) was positively correlated with the length of the first fruit node of the middle fruit branch, and negatively correlated with the number of bolls. There was a very significant positive correlation between the initial node of fruit branch and the height of initial node of fruit branch, and a very significant negative correlation with boll opening rate. There was a very significant positive correlation between the length of the first fruit node of the leaf branch and the upper fruit branch. Principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of the five principal components reached 81.15%, which was mainly related to the growth period, plant height, fruit branch angle, fruit branch initial node height and fruit branch initial node. Cluster analysis showed that 100 cotton varieties were divided into 7 categories when the genetic distance was 44.0, and 11 varieties in the second group were preliminarily screened, which were more in line with the character requirements of mechanically harvested varieties. 【Conclusion】 Through the comprehensive analysis of some phenotypic characters of machine-picked cotton, this paper evaluates the varieties popularized and applied in production, and 11 cotton varieties more suitable for machine picking are preliminarily selected, which provides enlightenment and reference for the improvement of agronomic characters of machine-picked cotton.

    AMMI Model Analysis of Yield Data of Xinjiang Sweet Potato Region Test
    WANG Xian, LUO Zhengqian, XU Linli, ZHOU Zhiling, TANG Jun, GAO Haifeng, LIU Enliang, JIN Ping
    2022, 59(5): 1093-1098.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.007
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (585KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To evaluate the ecological adaptability of different sweet potato varieties, verify the discrimination of various experimental areas in Xinjiang, and screen out new sweet potato varieties suitable for planting in Xinjiang in the hope of providing basis for the breeding and promotion of new sweet potato varieties in the region. 【Method】 AMMI model was used to comprehensively evaluate 5 sweet potato varieties and 3 pilots in the regional experiment of sweet potato varieties in Xinjiang Autonomous Region from 2018 to 2019 and analyze the stability and high yield of 5 sweet potato varieties and the discrimination of 3 pilots. 【Result】 The stability of Z15-1 and H6-1 was higher than that of Xushu 18. Z15-1 was a high and stable yield variety, which could be used as a demonstration variety. H6-1, Indonesian purple sweet potato belonged to low-yield and stable varieties; Yanshu No. 25 and Xushu No. 18 were high-yielding and unstable varieties. Wusu had the highest selection of varieties and had strong representativeness, while Yining had low discrimination. 【Conclusion】 Z15-1 shows good overall performance, and can be popularized and planted in Xinjiang sweet potato producing area. Yanshu No. 25 and Xushu No. 18 are high-yielding and unstable varieties, which can be demonstrated and popularized in local areas.

    Comprehensive Evaluation of the Adaptability of 15 Tomato Germplasm Resources in Xinjiang
    MA Yue, LI Yushan, ZHAO Lianjia, GUO Yawen, SONG Yu, XU Hongjun
    2022, 59(5): 1099-1109.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.008
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (995KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To fully explore the growth characteristics of existing tomato germplasm resources. 【Methods】 15 tomato germplasm resources introduced from different ecological regions were used as materials to determine 31 traits including agronomic traits, some appearance quality and fruit traits in different fertility periods, and their performance in Xinjiang was comprehensively evaluated using principal component analysis, correlation analysis and cluster analysis. 【Results】 The results showed that the 31 traits could be simplified into 6 principal components, which were fruit appearance, leaf traits, yield factor, quality factor, etc. The cumulative contribution rate reached 87.9%; the test materials were divided into 3 taxa by using Euclidean distance and class average method, and taxon I included 7 varieties, which had shorter plant height, more ventricles and higher yield per plant. Taxon II consisted of 6 varieties, which had moderate height, stout stalks, large single fruit weight, large transverse and longitudinal diameters, large leaf length and width, and high single plant yield, and the overall performance of this type of varieties was good. The varieties of this type had better appearance and quality. 【Conclusion】

    Horticultural Special Local Products
    Effects of Different Irrigation Rates on Leaf Water Potential and Soil Water Potential of Populus euphratica Forest
    HE Yuxiang, WU Shengli, HAN Wei, GUAN Wenkai
    2022, 59(5): 1110-1118.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.009
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1823KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To study the effects of different irrigation rates on leaf water potential and soil water potential of Populus euphratica forest, and to provide technical support for scientific flood diversion irrigation of Populus euphratica forest. 【Methods】 Populus euphratica forests of 2 to 4 years along the middle and lower reaches of Tarim River was taken as the research object, different irrigation rates (20,40 and 60 L/m2) were set up. WP4C dew-point water potential meter and TPSBR-SZL sensor were used to measure leaf water potential and soil water potential of Populus euphratica, and WET three-parameter soil tachymeter was used to measure soil water content, temperature and electrical conductivity before and after irrigation. 【Results】 The diurnal variation of leaf water potential and soil water potential of Populus euphratica under different irrigation rates showed a pattern of 60 L/m2>40 L/m2>20 L/m2>CK. The diurnal variation of leaf water potential of Populus euphratica showed a single-peak "V" shape, which was higher in the morning and lower after the noon. The diurnal variation of leaf water potential and soil water potential under 40 and 60 L/m2 treatments were all less than that under 20 L/m2 and CK. The soil water content affected the water potential of Populus euphratica, and the decrease of soil conductivity and temperature was beneficial to the decrease of soil salt. 【Conclusion】 Repeated irrigation promotes the growth of Populus euphratica trees in arid area. The diurnal variation of leaf water potential and soil water potential is 60 L/m2<40 L/m2<20 L/m2<CK. The optimal irrigation rate for 2 year, 3 year and 4 year Populus euphratica is 60 L/m2, 40 L/m2 and 20 L/m2, respectively.

    Effects of Different Tree Ages on Leaf Water Potential and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Populus euphratica
    SHI Zhixin, WU Shengli, GUAN Wenke, HAN Wei, YUE Yongjiang, HE Yuxiang
    2022, 59(5): 1119-1127.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.010
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    【Objective】 to reveal the effects of different tree ages on leaf water potential and photosynthetic characteristics of Populus euphraticain Xinjiang. 【Methods】 The leaf water potential and photosynthetic parameters of Populus euphraticaat two tree ages (3 and 5 years) were chosen for analysis. 【Results】 (1) The diurnal process of leaf water potential of two tree ages of Populus euphraticashowed a "V" shape in general, and the younger the tree age, the weaker the photosynthetic capacity and the higher the leaf water potential; (2) The changes of photosynthetic factors were also different with different tree ages. The daily mean values of intercellular CO2 concentration, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency of 5-year-old Populus euphraticawere significantly higher than those of 3-year-old Populus euphratica(P< 0.05); (3) The leaf water potential of Populus euphraticaat two tree ages in the rapid growth period was significantly positively correlated with the transpiration rate of physiological factors (P< 0.01), and both showed the weakening of photosynthesis caused by stomatal constraints. 【Conclusion】 The changes of leaf water potential of Populus euphraticaat two tree ages vary with different tree ages, and the diurnal variation characteristics of photosynthesis of Populus euphraticaat different tree ages are not significant. In general, with the increase of tree age, the photosynthetic capacity of Populus euphraticais improved, and the water use efficiency and productivity of Populus euphraticaare higher.

    Effects of Different Ca2+ Concentrations on Seed Germination and Root Growth of Taraxacum mongolicum and Taraxacumkok-saghyz
    YAN Qingqing, XING Tao, WANG Li, ZHANG Yan, GAO Qiang, XU Lin, WANG Yonggang
    2022, 59(5): 1128-1134.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.011
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (909KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To study the response of seed germination and root growth to different concentrations of Ca2+ and elucidate the response characteristics of seed and root to Ca2+.【Method】 In this study, we used theTaraxacum mongolicum strain Huangpu and Taraxacumkok-saghyz strain Kegen in Xinjiang as materials, In 2020, the laboratory experiment was carried out Institute of Crop Germplasm Resources, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences. 【Result】 Compared with CK, 0.04 mol/L Ca2+ treatment had no significant effect on the germination rate, germination potential and germination index of Huangpu and Kegen. The germination parameters of other Ca2+ treatments decreased with the increase of concentration. The total length, surface area and volume of roots decreased gradually with the increase of Ca2+ concentration. The fine root length (diameter (d) < 0.5 mm) of Kegen was larger than that of Huangpu under 0.04 and 0.08 mol/L Ca2+ concentrations. 【Conclusion】 The root growth adaptability of Huangpu and Kegen is different under different Ca2+ concentrations. Especially at the concentration of 0.04 and 0.08 mol/L Ca2+, the fine root length of Kegen is longer than that of Huangpu, and the germination rate of Kegen is higher than that of Huangpu.

    Effects of Different Temperatures on the Fruit Softening of Xizhoumi No. 25 Hami Melon during Storage
    XU Bin, Atawula Tiemur, ZHANG Ting, PAN Yan, ZHANG Lianwen, XIE Xiaoding
    2022, 59(5): 1135-1143.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.012
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    【Objective】 To study the effect of different storage temperatures on cell wall degradation enzymes in pulp of Xizhoumi No.25 Hami melon and explore the mechanism of temperature regulation on postharvest softening of the melon in the hope of providing theoretical reference for postharvest storage and preservation of Hami melon. 【Method】 The mature Xizhoumi No.25 Hami melon was taken as test material and stored in different temperatures (0℃,5℃,10℃,15℃), the fruit hardness and respiratory intensity were measured every 5 days. The effects of different storage temperatures on fruit softening were analyzed by analyzing the activity indexes of cell wall degradation enzymes such as β-galact osidase (β-Gal), polygalacturonase (PG), pectinase (PE) and cellulose (Cx). 【Result】 The effects of different storage temperatures on fruit hardness, respiration intensity and cell wall degradation enzyme activity of Xizhoumi No.25 Hami melon were significantly different. The lower the temperature was, the slower the pulp hardness decreased, the lower the peak value of fruit respiration intensity, and the lower the activity of pulp cell wall degradation enzyme. When the temperature was lower than 5℃,the pulp showed obvious symptoms of cold injury. 【Conclusion】 All things considered, 5℃ is the best for Xizhoumi No.25 Hami melon storage. The results of correlation analysis showed that the fruit hardness of Xizhoumi No.25 is negatively correlated with respiratory strength, and significantly negatively correlated with β-Gal, PG, PE and Cx activities.

    Plant Protection·Microbes·Storage and Preservation Processing
    Evaluation of Trap Colour, Hanging Height and Position on the Effectiveness of Trapping Tuta absoluta(meyrick)
    TAN Yixi, FU Kaiyun, JIA Zunzun, LI Aimei, DING Xinhua, Tursun Ahemat, FENG Hongzu, GUO Wenchao
    2022, 59(5): 1144-1155.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.013
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1922KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To investigate the effects of trap color, hanging height and hanging position on the trapping effect, and to provide a basis for the green prevention and control of tomato leaf diving moth. 【Methods】 In this study, specific sex attractants were used as experimental materials, and behavioral ecology techniques were adopted to conduct a comparative study on the trapping effects of sex pheromone traps (plane traps) on tomato leaf miner moth in organic vegetable production shed. 【Results】 4 kinds of color: blue, green, yellow and white sex pheromone traps could trap a certain quantity of tomato leaf moth, 1 d average daily trap quantity among the 4 kinds of color traps from high to low in turn was blue 65.4, green 59.7, white 47.4, yellow 30.9. In terms of daily amount of trap, the highest was blue trap. The order was blue and green > white > yellow trap, and the difference was significant. There were significant differences in the proportion of the daily amount of traps with different colors, and the order was blue > green > white > yellow. The average daily trapping quantity of the three kinds of high hanging sex pheromone traps was 125.1 at 40 - 60 cm, 96.1 at 90 - 110 cm and 65.1 at 140 - 160 cm, respectively, with the highest daily trapping quantity at 40 - 60 cm. The order was 40-60 cm > 90-110 cm > 140-160 cm, the difference was obvious. The proportion of moths captured by traps at different hanging heights at 40 - 60 cm was significantly higher than at the other two hanging heights, and the order was 40 - 60 cm > 90 - 110 cm > 140 - 160 cm. The 35 d average daily trapping quantity of the three kinds of traps was 103.0 at the air vent, 66.6 at the exit and 71.4 at the place far from the air vent. The highest daily trapping quantity was at the air vent, which was in the order of air vent > far from the air vent > the entrance and exit, and the difference was obvious. The proportion of the trapping amount of the traps in different hanging positions was significantly higher than those in the other two hanging positions, which was in the order of air outlet > entrance and exit and far away from air outlet. Comprehensive analysis of the hazard status (number of holes, number of larvae) of the three suspension positions showed: the ventilation outlet > away from the ventilation outlet > entrance and exit. 【Conclusion】 The blue sex pheromone trap (planar traps) placed at 40-60 cm vents has the best trapping effect on tomato leaf miner in vegetable production.

    A preliminary study on the occurrence regularity of Acalitus phloeocoptes(Nalepa) in apricot orchard
    Souyin Tuya, WEI Yang, Wubuyjiang Bahati, Adil Sattar, ZHANG Shuo
    2022, 59(5): 1156-1164.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.014
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2058KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 The light ones are unable to blossom and leaf buds, and the heavy ones are dead, which has posed a serious threat to the healthy development of apricot industry in Luntai County. In view of this situation, it is urgent to clarify the causes of the gall, the occurrence, transfer and diffusion of the Acalitus phloeocoptes (Nalepa), and determine the best control time. 【Methods】 Microscopic examination was performed in the gall chamber of the apricot bud, and the damage symptoms and the dynamics of the gall factors were recorded in the field. Adhesive tape was pasted between old and new branches and armyworm boards were hung at different heights, directions and distances from tree crowns to record the transfer and harm laws, propagation modes and propagation distances of gall factors. 【Results】 Micro examination of the bud gall found the damage of the apricot bud to a gall mite, which caused the proliferation and aberration of the gall was identified as Acalitus phloeocoptes (Nalepa). the gall mite In Lutai County, Xinjiang Region, the mite mainly overwintering in gall bud young apricot scales leaves accounted for 95.91% of the total survey; In the middle of apricot blossom in late March of the next year, the overwintering adult mites began to sting, and in early April, the adult mites began to lay a large number of eggs, the oviposition peak of the gall mite was from late April to early May, the peak of adult and nymites was mid-to-late May. As temperatures dropped by the end of September, adult mites prepared for overwintering. It was observed that the gall mite began to crawl and transfer from bud to bud in early May, and the transfer peak was in late May. The results showed that wind was the main passive transmission medium of the gall mites, which helped it to spread over a long distance, with the furthest distance reaching 15 m. The amount of mites trapped by armyworm plates at different heights was different: windward side > leeward side. 【Conclusion】 The gall of apricot bud is caused by the infection of Acalitus phloeocoptes (Nalepa), and the adult mites overwinter in the inner layer of gall bud. The gall occurs from the end of March to the end of September in Luntai County, Xinjiang, with more than 10 generations occurring in a year, and the damage is more serious in April, May and June. Late May is the peak of its transfer, and this stage is the best time for chemical control.

    Evaluation of 10 Kinds of Insecticides on the Control Effect of Tomato Leaf Miner
    FU Kaiyun, LI Aimei, DING Xinhua, JIA Zunzun, Ahmat Tuerxun, FENG Hongzu, GUO Wenchao
    2022, 59(5): 1165-1172.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.015
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (735KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 Evaluation of 10 Kinds of Insecticides on the Control Effect of Tomato Leaf Miner. 【Methods】 In order to effectively control the occurrence and damage of tomato leaf miners, the control effects of 10 pesticides were measured after spraying in the field. 【Results】 The results showed that in the field test, the combination of 34% ethidium methoxine 48 mL/667m2, 6% spinosad 50 mL/667m2 and 0.05% silicone additive 15 mL/667m2, 6% spinosad 50 mL/667m2, 20% chlorantraniliprole 6.7 mL/667m2, 20% chlorantraniliprole 10 mL/667m2 could reach 94.59%, 93.10%, 90.97% and 91.29%, respectively in the field control. 【Conclusion】 34% ethoxylate SC 48 mL/667m2, 6% spinosad SC 50 mL/667m2 and 0.05% silicone additive 15 mL/667m2 are suggested to be used turn in field.

    Effects of Artificial Migration of Harmonia Axyridis and Chemical Control on the Control Effect of Cotton Aphid and the Population Dynamics of Natural Enemies
    LI Yanbing, GUO Xiaohu, Nuershiwake Adalbieke, Patima Wumuerhan, MA Deying
    2022, 59(5): 1173-1179.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.016
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    【Objective】 To explore the biological control technology of releasing Adonia variegate(Goeze) against cotton field pest-Aphis gossypii and the biological control method of cotton aphid. 【Method】 The control effect of Adonia variegate(Goeze) on cotton aphid outbreak in cotton field was systematically studied by three different treatment measures: release, chemical control and no control. 【Result】 The results showed that the number of aphids in the cotton field decreased significantly compared with that in the CK field, and the number of aphids in the cotton field was close to that in the chemically controlled cotton field after release of Adonia variegate(Goeze) 20 days. There were significant differences in control effect among different treatments. The control effectiveness of biological control cotton field reached the same level as that of chemical cotton field after 30 days of treatment. However, the peak number of Adonia variegate(Goeze) in different growth periods in biological control cotton field was significantly higher than those in the other two cotton fields. 【Conclusion】 The peak duration of Adonia variegate(Goeze) in the biological control cotton field was longer than those in the chemical control cotton field and CK treatment, and its control effect was more stable than that of chemical control cotton field.

    Identification and Evaluation of Resistance to Borer of Main Maize Varieties in Different Growth Stages in Xinjiang
    DING Xinhua, WANG Zhihui, JIA Zunzun, FU Kaiyun, Tursun Ahemaiti, YANG Jie, GUO Wenchao
    2022, 59(5): 1180-1188.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.017
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1275KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To identify the resistance level of maize borer and select the local anti-borer varieties in the hope of providing provide important alternative measures for the green prevention and control and pesticide application reduction in Xinjiang. 【Method】 The identification of resistance to borer in 19 maize cultivars at different growth stages in Xinjiang oasis was carried out by means of feeding grade method, larval weight evaluation method and culm survey method. 【Result】 There were significant differences in the resistance levels of corn borer at heart leaf stage and maturity stage among the tested maize varieties (P< 0.05), which were as follows: KWS1553 had the best resistance at heart leaf stage, with an average feeding grade of 2.9, larval survival rate of 33.33%, larval weight of 0.000,77 g, and high resistance (HR) level. The average feeding grade, larval survival rate and larval weight of Xinyu 57 were 2.9, 65.48% and 0.001,64 g, respectively, which also reached high resistance (HR) level. Xianyu 335 and KWS6333 reached the resistance (R) level. Xinyu 108 showed the best resistance to borer in mature stage, with the average number of borer holes per plant and the average tunnel length per plant being 0.03 and 0.04 cm per plant, respectively. The average number of cavities per plant and the average tunnel length per plant were 0.05 and 0.04 cm/plant, respectively. Xinyu 57 showed the worst resistance to corn borer, with the average number of borer holes per plant and the average tunnel length per plant being 1.08 and 3.06cm/plant. 【Conclusion】 Varieties KWS1553, Xinyu 108, Wugu 631, Wugu 310, KWS6333 and Zhengdan 958 show good resistance to borer at seedling stage and maturity stage, while Xinyu 57 show high resistance to borer at seedling stage and poor resistance to borer at maturity stage. It is suggested to choose the varieties with better resistance to the corn borer in production, and avoid the planting of susceptible and highly susceptible varieties, which can realize the natural control of the corn borer to a certain extent and reduce the application of chemical pesticides.

    The Occurrence and Damage of Wheat Powdery Mildew in Desert Oasis Area and the Control Efficiency Evaluation of Fungicides
    CHEN Li, SHEN Yuyang, CUI Yanhua, ZHANG Hang, YANG Anpei, FAN Guiqiang, LEI Junjie, LI Guangkuo, GAO Haifeng
    2022, 59(5): 1189-1195.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.018
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (863KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 The aim of this study is to clarify the occurrence and damage of wheat powdery mildew in different areas and screen the fungicides which have better control effectsin the hope of providing scientific basis for the prevention and control of wheat powdery mildew in desert oasis ecological area. 【Method】 General investigation method was used to investigate the occurrence of powdery mildew in different ecological zones. The efficacy test was conducted by randomized blockdesign, and the occurrence of wheat powdery mildew was surveyed in each plot at fixed points. 【Result】 The occurrence and damage of wheat powdery mildew in Hotan, Kashgar and Aksu regions were higher, with disease index of (35.65±0.83),(35.63±1.04) and (30.82±0.91), respectively, significantly higher than that in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture and Tacheng region, with the disease index of (9.95±0.71) and (6.00± 0.46), respectively. 240 g/L mefentrifluconazole-pyraclostrobine EC and 19% picoxystrobin-propiconazole SC had the best control efficacy against wheat powdery mildew with 84.94% and 82.77%, respectively. The control efficiency of 23% kresoxim-methyl-epoxiconazole SC, 430 g/L tebuconazole SC, 42% metrafenone SC, 43%fluoxastrobin-tebuconazole SC, 48% difenoconazole-azoxystrobin SC, 75% trifloxystrobin-tebuconazole WG and 40% myclobutanil WP floated in the range of 64.57% to 71.12%. 【Conclusion】 The occurrence and damage of wheat powdery mildew in southern Xinjiang is significantly severer than that in northern areas, with the occurrence degree of 3 to 5. The occurrence of powdery milder in northern Xinjiang was mostly at degree 1 to 2. 240 g/L mefentrifluconazole-pyraclostrobine EC, 19% picoxystrobin-propiconazole SC, 23% kresoxim-methyl-epoxiconazole SC, 430 g/L tebuconazole SC, 42% metrafenone SC, 43% fluoxastrobin-tebuconazole SC, 48% difenoconazole-azoxystrobin SC, 75% trifloxystrobin-tebuconazole WG and 40% myclobutanil WP can effectively control wheat powdery mildew and are safe for wheat growth. They can be applied in rotation in wheat fields.

    Effects of Different Nitrogen Contents on Population Proliferation of Asian Corn Borer
    YUAN Jie, DING Xinhua, FU Kaiyun, JIA Zunzun, Aerziguli Ruo, Tursun Ahemat, GUO Wenchao
    2022, 59(5): 1196-1202.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.019
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1073KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To clarify the effects of artificial diets with different nitrogen contents on the growth, development and reproduction of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis), in the hope of providing some theoretical basis for the feeding and selection of Asian corn borer larvae. 【Method】 Two methods were adopted in the study: in the laboratory, food selection experiment on Asian corn borer was conducted by leaf dish method to calculated the feeding rate; Outside, five different nitrogen content feeds with nitrogen content of 3.94%, 7.33%, 10.69%, 18.84%, and 30.31% were set to determine the effects of different nitrogen content on the growth and development of the Asian corn borer. 【Results】 At 25℃ the low nitrogen level N1 (nitrogen content 3.94%) failed to emerge normally, and the larval development period was the longest. When the nitrogen content increased to 18.84% (N4), the intrinsic growth rate (0.13) and net proliferation rate (66.14), weekly growth rate (1.14), hatching rate (90.06%) was the highest, average generation period (30.79), population doubling time (5.17) was the shortest, which was significantly different from the other four nitrogen levels (P<0.05), the larval duration was significantly shortened, the N4 pupation rate (98.66%), emergence rate (95.45%), survival rate (91.33%), and average egg production per female (120.12±9.73) were the highest, but when the nitrogen content after reaching 30.31%, the intrinsic growth rate (0.04), net multiplication rate (44.71), and weekly growth rate (1.04) were the lowest, the average generation period (92.36), and the population doubling time (16.85) was the longest, at 25℃ and, the result at 30℃ was close to that at 20℃. In addition, there was no significant difference in the pupal stage, adult moth lifespan, and female fecundity between the three temperature treatments (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 Nitrogen content is closely related to the individual development of the Asian corn borer and the population multiplication. In a certain interval, with the increase of nitrogen content, the growth speeds up and the population multiplication ability is enhanced. High nitrogen 30.31% and low nitrogen 3.94% both have a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of corn borer.

    Screening, identification and optimization of fermentation conditions of antagonistic Xenorhabdus bovienii 445 against Aspergillus niger
    GAO Yujie, ZHAN Faqiang, CHEN Cheng, BAO Huifang, YANG Rong, WANG Ning, HOU Xinqiang, HOU Min, SHI Yingwu, LONG Xuanqi
    2022, 59(5): 1203-1215.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.020
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2129KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 Entomopathogenic nematode symbiosis have broad antimicrobial spectrum and effective antibacterial effects, so screening strains with highly antagonistic effects against Aspergillus niger from the existing commensal bacteria resources will provide more choices for seeking safe and efficient biopreservation materials. 【Methods】 The existing entomopathogenic nematode symbiosis were preliminarily screened and re screened by plate confrontation method and agar diffusion method respectively, so as to screen the highly antagonistic symbiotic bacteria, identify the highly antagonistic symbiotic bacteria by physiological and biochemical analysis and 16S rRNA sequence evolution analysis, and optimize the strain culture conditions by single factor test and response surface analysis. The control efficiency for Aspergillus niger in Red Globe grape was verified by injury inoculation method. 【Results】 A total of 20 antagonistic symbiotic bacteria were obtained through preliminary isolation and screening, and a symbiotic bacterium (445) with significant antibacterial effect was obtained through re screening. Through physiological, biochemical and molecular biological analysis, it was identified as pathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus bovienii, Genebank ID: OK560680 through physiological, biochemical and molecular biological analysis. It was clustered in the same branch as strain Xenorhabdus bovienii strain Xb139 (MG995576.1), with a similarity of 99.79%. Through single factor test and response surface analysis, the optimal culture conditions for the antibacterial activity of strain 445 were as follows: inoculation amount of 3.06 %, pH 7.0, liquid volume of 100.15 mL / 250 mL. Under these conditions, the diameter of antibacterial circle was 29.67±0.28 mm, and the antibacterial titer was 10.59 cm/mL, which was 39.16% higher than that before optimization. In the normal temperature antiefficiency experiment of grapes, the fermentation broth of Xenorhabdus bovienii 445 had a better control effect on Aspergillus niger, and the control effect was 63.50 % after 3 days. 【Conclusion】 In this study, entomopathogenic nematode symbiotic bacteria were used to control Aspergillus niger infection during grape storage for the first time, and a highly effective entomopathogenic nematode symbiotic bacteria against Aspergillus niger was screened. Its fermentation broth has good inhibitory effect on Aspergillus niger and good biocontrol potential, which provides new biocontrol materials and research ideas for biocontrol of postharvest pathogen Aspergillus niger.

    Preliminary Study on the Synergistic Effects of Bacillus subtilis KXZ-33 and Chemical Pesticides against Cotton Fusarium wilt
    ZHAO Yingying, ZHANG Jungao, LI Jin, LIANG Jing, GAO Xiangyu, GU Aixing, LIE Bin
    2022, 59(5): 1216-1222.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.021
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (828KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 Through the combination of biocontrol bacteria and chemical fungicides, the formula combination that can effectively control cotton Fusarium wilt was screened out, and the seed treatment was carried out with a view to providing technical support for the green prevention and control of cotton disease. 【Methods】 Fusarium oxysporum, the main pathogen of Fusarium wilt, was selected by indoor plate confrontation test. The virulence of chemical fungicides was tested by the method of toxic media, and the chemical fungicides used in coordination with biocontrol bacteria were screened by compatibility test. The control effect was evaluated by pot experiment. 【Results】 All the six biocontrol bacteria had inhibitory effects on Fusarium oxysporum, with the inhibition rates ranging from 56.69% to 79.53%, and Bacillus subtilis KXZ-33 had the best inhibition rate of 79.53%. The EC50 of Thiobacillam-methyl, Carbendazim and Formetrix were 15.840,1, 18.018,0 and 12.794,0 mg/L, respectively. The maximum compatibility of KXZ-33 with 20 mg/L Thiobacillam-methyl was 90.46%, and the viable bacteria count was 2.18×107 cfu/mL.The control effect of KXZ-33 and 10 mg/L Carbendazim on 7 d was 90.5%, and decreased to 27.0% on 28 d. KXZ-33 combined with 10 mg/L Thiobacillam-methyl was 87.7% for 7 days and 43.7% for 28 days. 【Conclusion】 Bacillus subtilis KXZ-33 seed treatment and spraying 50% methyl Thiobacillam-methyl 10 mg/L to control cotton Fusarium wilt disease can improve the control effect, make up for biocontrol bacteria in agricultural production of unstable control effect and at the same time reduce the use of chemical pesticides, thus further developing service production.

    Isolation and Preliminary Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms from Muskmelon in Hami Nuomao Lake Area
    WANG Zhihui, HUO Xiangdong, LI Jiangfen, ZHAI Yong, LI Peiqi, QIN Xinzheng
    2022, 59(5): 1223-1230.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.022
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1079KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 Through the isolation, culture and preliminary identification of culturable microorganisms in the root, vine, fruit and rhizosphere soil of healthy and diseased melon varieties Huang 86 and Xizhoumi, which are mainly cultivated in The Nuomao Lake of Hami, the this project aims to provide necessary information of pathogenic bacteria and microbial diseases for the prevention and control of melon diseases in the Lake. 【Method】 The roots, vines, fruits and rhizosphere soil of diseased and control healthy strains were collected, and bacteria and fungi were isolated and cultured by dilution coating method. 16S rDNA and ITS were used to identify and isolate the isolates. The microbes in healthy and diseased samples were compared to determine the potential pathogenic bacteria and microbial disease types. 【Result】 A total of 23 culturable strains were isolated and identified from healthy and diseased strains of melon variety Huang 86, including 13 bacteria, 10 fungi and 4 potential pathogenic bacteria. A total of 51 culturable strains were isolated and identified, including 37 bacteria and 14 fungi, and 4 potential pathogenic bacteria were found. 【Conclusion】 The results showed that Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae can cause Fusarium wilt and Verticillium dahliae, respectively. The main pathogen of melon variety Xizhoumi was Fusarium solani, which can cause melon Fusarium root rot.

    Isolation and Identification of Pathogens Causing Rust Disease on Taraxacumkok-saghyz Rodin in Xinjiang
    HAN Sheng, GAO Qiang, XIANG Tao, XU Lin, REN Hailong, YAN Qingqing, Yushanjiang Maimaiti, ZHANG Yan, LI Wenghui
    2022, 59(5): 1231-1235.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.023
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (715KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 This project aims to identify the pathogen causing Taraxacumkok-saghyz Rodin rust disease and provide scientific basis for the effective control of the disease. 【Methods】 According to Koch's rule, the pathogen of rubber grass rust in the field was isolated and inoculated with healthy rubber grass to verify its pathogenicity. The morphology of summer spores of rubber grass rust was observed under the microscope. The 28S rDNA and its gene sequences of rust were amplified and sequenced by PCR with fungal universal primer NL1 / NL4 and rust universal primer ITS5-u/ITS4rust. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by its sequence to analyze the genus status of the strain. 【Result】 The rust isolated from field samples could infect healthy plants, and the symptoms were consistent with those in the field. The summer spores of rubber grass rust were nearly spherical, oval or ovoid, and the size was (24-32×21-26)μm, light yellow to chestnut brown, spiny, single cell, wall thickness of 1-2.5 μm. Its sequence genetic analysis showed that rubber grass rust in Ili, Xinjiang was the closest to Pucciniahieracii, and its sequence homology reached 99.06%.【Conclusion】 The pathogen causing Taraxacumkok-saghyz Rodin rust disease was Pucciniahieracii.

    Effects of Straw Returning on Soil Nutrients and Microbial Diversity in Cotton Field
    QIN Xinzheng, WANG Yumiao, WANG Zhihui, XIE Chengjuan, WANG Bo
    2022, 59(5): 1236-1244.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.024
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1228KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To discuss the effects of straw returning on soil nutrients and microbial diversity in cotton field. 【Methods】 The degradation rate of cotton stalk was calculated by the weight change of cotton stalk. Soil nutrients such as organic matter content and physical and chemical properties of soil were determined. The number of cultivable microorganisms was measured by medium plate method. The effects of straw returning on soil microbial diversity were studied by high-throughput sequencing. 【Result】 The degradation rate of cotton straw could reach to 5.01%; The total amount of cultivable microorganisms increased by 9.8%, the number of bacteria increased by 64.6%, and the number of actinomycete increased by 39.3%; After returning straw, the contents of soil available nitrogen and available potassium increased significantly, which were 7.40% and 32.77%, respectively; High throughput sequencing data analysis showed that straw returning had an impact on microbial diversity, and the structure of the microbial flora, genus and species level changed obviously. 【Conclusion】 Straw returning can increase soil nutrients, increase the number of cultivable microorganisms and improve soil microbial diversity.

    Regeneration and Mating Type Determination of Protoplast of Pleurotus ferulae
    Nurziya Yarmamat, LUO Ying, HAO Jingzhe, QI Haoxuan, PEI Longying, SUN Chunhua, JIA Wenjie, JIA Peisong
    2022, 59(5): 1245-1251.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.025
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    【Objective】 To obtain a new strain of Pleurotus ferulae with excellent traits by the protoplast monokaryotation technology in the hope of laying the theoretical and technical foundation for the selection and industrial production of new varieties of wild P. ferulae in Xinjiang. 【Method】 The protoplasmic preparation technique was used to obtain the mononuclear strain of P. ferulae and determine its mating type. 【Result】 At 3.5 h after enzymolysis, the protoplast release of the 3 wild P. ferulaeparent strains PL01, PL163 and PL176 was the maximum, with the concentration as high as 20.6 × 105 /mL. Through optimized protoplast monokaryonization, 50 mononuclear strains were finally obtained from the 3 parent strains. The protoplast monokaryonization rates of parent strains PL163, PL01 and PL176 were 25.68%, 12.8% and 10.8%, respectively, with a low acquisition rate. Then, the mating type was determined, and mononuclear strains with 2 mating types were obtained from each parent strain. Among them, the acquisition ratio of the 2 mating types from PL01 and PL163 strains was 1∶3, while that of PL176 was 1∶4. Differences were found in mycelial growth rate and colony morphology among each parent strain and the obtained mononuclear strains. Subsequently, pairing was performed using mononuclear strains PL01-P16, PL001-P49, PL163-7, PL163-24, PL176-23 and PL176-39 with different mating types as hybrid breeding materials, and 12 hybrid strains with excellent traits were obtained. The antagonistic reaction showed that the 12 hybrid strains formed an obvious uplifted antagonistic band between their parents, and were significantly different from their parents. 【Conclusion】 The 3 wild P. ferulae strains present rich diversity in protoplast regeneration, mononuclear acquisition rate, growth rate and morphology. The obtained hybrid strains lay a foundation for the conservation of new varieties of P.

    Study on Application Technology of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B1619 in Promoting Healthy Growth of Tomato Seedlings
    WANG Fei, QIU Guang, LUO Wenfang, SUN Xiaojun, YANG Hongmei, LIU Chengjun, XU Jianjun, HE Wei
    2022, 59(5): 1252-1259.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.026
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1060KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 To study the comprehensive effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B1619 on growth promotion and disease prevention of processed tomato seedlings in the hope of providing a set of healthy, ecological and green management technology for the cultivation of robust seedlings and for the promotion of healthy development of processed tomato industry in Xinjiang. 【Method】 The effects of Bacillus amylolitica B1619 to growth of tomato seedlings and the prevention of seedling diseases were studied with matrix mixed medicine and spray method through laboratory experiment of hole dish seedling at seedling stage. 【Result】 The Bacillus amylolitica B1619 improves seedling emergence rate, promote growth, prevent and control damping off, its also beneficial to cultivate healthy seedlings, improve immunity, and reduce soil-borne diseases of tomato seedlings.1. Bacillus amylolitica B1619 improved the soil ecological environment of tomato seedling hole disk. The soil was loose, biomass of tomato root and seedling was significantly increased after application of bacillus compared with the control. The leaves were darker and the chlorophyll content increased. 2.Its improved immunity of tomato, enhanced disease resistance, and processed tomato seedlings had a strong role in the prevention of cataplexy. 【Conclusion】 B.amylum B1619 can improve the ecological environment of the biomass of tomato roots and seedlings; the leaf color deepens and the chlorophyll content increases. It can improve tomato immunity, enhance disease resistance, and have a strong preventive effect on cataplexy in processed tomato seedlings.

    Growth Promoting Effect and Safety Evaluation of Bacillus velezensis JTB8-2 on Processed Tomato
    HE Wei, LUO Wenfang, YU Zhenhua, XU Jianjun, SUN Xiaojun
    2022, 59(5): 1260-1269.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.027
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1475KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 This project aims to make clear the growth-promoting effects and security of B.velezensis JTB8-2 obtained from local processed tomato fields in Xinjiang. 【Method】 The study was carried out by seed germination promotion,hole tray seedling and pot cultivation. 【Results】 The seedling test results showed that the plant height, stem diameter, stem fresh weight and root fresh weight of processed tomato treated with 25, 50 and 100 times dilution of fermentation broth of B.velezensis JTB8-2 were significantly higher than those of blank control. The results of pot experiment showed that the fresh weight of tomato stem treated by fermentation solution 25 times, 50 times and 100 times was significantly higher than those treated by NB medium 25 times, 50 times and 100 times and blank control. The results of seed germination test showed that the original fermentation liquid of strain JTB8-2 had inhibitory effect on seed germination and bud growth of 20 crops, but the dilution liquid of 25 times or more had no effect on seed germination and bud growth of crops. 【Conclusion】 It is safe for seed germination and bud growth of crops to dilute fermentation broth 25 times or more, and the fermentation broth of B.velezensis JTB8-2 can promote the growth of tomato plants. The strain has the potential to be developed into a growth-promoting bacterium of processed tomato and more crops.

    Determination of Mineral Elements in Maize Cultivars by Microwave Digestion/ICP-AES and Principal Component Analysis
    MAO Hongyan, YU Ming, Zulipya Maimaiti
    2022, 59(5): 1270-1276.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.028
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    【Objective】 To analyze the mineral elements of different maize cultivars in the hope of providing theoretical basis for improving the nutrition quality and processing quality of maize cultivars of Xinjiang. 【Method】 In this study, 23 samples of maize cultivars in Xinjiang were collected, and the contents of five elements including calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium and phosphorus were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) method, and the principal component analysis and correlation analysis were conducted with SPSS software. 【Result】 The results showed that the content of calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium and phosphorus were 8.22-17.15 mg/100g, 0.36-1.29 mg/100g, 0.84-1.95 mg/100g, 92.65-138.26 mg/100g and 158.91-282.71 mg/100g, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Comprehensive analysis results indicated that the quality of 23 maize cultivars was different: the order from high to low, Denghai 8883>Xinyu 54> Xinyu 9>2564> Xinyu 47> Xinyu 80> Xinyu 87> Xinyu 84 > Xinyu 41 >3376>Nongrun 919> KX9384>Heyu 187> Xinyu 60> M753> Xinyu 74 > Xinyu 59> Xinyu 29>9384>335> Xinyu 77> Xinyu 13> Xinyu 65.

    Effects of Different Drying Promoters on Drying Rate and Sensory Quality of Seedless Green Grape
    LIAN Weijia, XU Yanjun, Iskar Maitiniyazi, TANG Qiuju, CHEN Ya, LIU Fengjuan
    2022, 59(5): 1277-1283.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.029
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    【Objective】 To study the effects of different drying promoters on drying rate, color and sensory quality of seedless green grapes in the hope of providng some reference and guidance for optimizing the formula of drying promoters. 【Method】 Seedless green grapes were simultaneously treated with four self-made drying promoters and Izmu brand compound grape dry promoters purchased from the market, after that, they were weighed regularly, their water ratios and drying rate calculated, and after drying, their color difference data were measured, physical and chemical indexes and sensory quality analyzed. In the end, the performance and countermeasures of seedless green grapes treated with different drying promoters were analyzed. 【Result】 In terms of drying rate, C1 > C2 > K> C3 > C4; In green value, C1 > C2 > C4 > K > C3; The color difference values of raisins using C1 and C3 promoters were significantly higher than those of C2, C4 and K. The color difference value of K promoter was the smallest, the color difference values of C1 and K were 2.53, and the color difference values of C3 and K were 1.85, belonging to small color differences, and the color differences could be clearly felt by naked eyes; In terms of physical and chemical indexes, heavy metal content, microbial index, water content, total sugar and total acid of seedless green raisins treated with five kinds of desiccants met the corresponding national standards, and there was no significant difference; In terms of sensory quality evaluation, K > C4 > C3 > C1 > C2. 【Conclusion】 Among the four kinds of dry promoters, the effect of using dry promoter K to treat seedless white grapes is the best, the drying rate is fast and uniform, and the dried raisins have good quality, green color and excellent sense.

    Effects of Special Package in Simulated Transportation of Flat Peaches
    GUO Huijing, LI Jixin, SONG Fangyuan, ZHAO Zhiyong
    2022, 59(5): 1284-1291.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.030
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    【Objective】 To develop a special packaging box and a kit for flat peaches with damping function and to explore its effect in transportation. 【Methods】 Xinjiang flat peach as the test material, the simulated transportation vibration method was applied and the damage index, weight loss rate, hardness, respiration rate, soluble solids (TSS) content, catalase (CAT) activity and other indicators of the fruit were measured to analyze whether the special packaging box for flat peaches prevented vibration and fall damage of flat peaches. 【Results】 Compared with the control and ordinary packing box, the special packing box can not only effectively reduce the surface damage rate of flat peach fruit (10.53%), maintain the fruit hardness (5.0 kg/cm2), but also reduce the weight loss rate (16.93%), respiratory intensity (72.08 mgCO2/kg·h) and ethylene release rate (2.7 μL/kg·h), reduce the accumulation of malondialdehyde (1.21 mmol/g), inhibit the activity of polyphenol oxidase (11.78 U/g), enhance the activity of catalase (25.73 U/g), and delay the senescence of fruits. 【Conclusion】 The special packaging box for flat peaches has the effect of significantly reducing fruit damage and delaying its senescence, which is more conducive to maintaining the storage quality of flat peaches after transportation.

    Effects of Hanging Cellaring on Storage Quality of Chinese Cabbage in Winter in Southern Xinjiang
    Ataura Timur, Ablak Niyazi, TIAN Quanming, ZHANG Jian, XU Bin, WU Bin
    2022, 59(5): 1292-1300.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.05.031
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1732KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 In order to explore the effects of different storage methods on quality and active oxygen metabolism of Chinese cabbage, different treatments were used to treat Chinese cabbage in Southern Xinjiang, and the effects of hanging cellars on decay and disease of Chinese cabbage were studied. 【Methods】 Hanging storage mode was adopted for storage, including bundling leaves with root, bundling leaves with root, cutting loose leaves with root and cutting loose leaves. 【Results】 Bundling with root and leaf could delay the decomposition rate, the decrease of VC and the synthesis of crude fiber, improve the activities of POD, SOD and APX, and delay the increase of nitrate content. The content of VC and soluble protein was 0.45 mg/100g and 0.88 mg/g in the root bundling group after 90 days of storage. The activities of POD, SOD, APX and CAT were 12.43 U, 0.83 U, 25.12 U and 1.21 U, respectively, which were 1.35, 1.44, 1.56 and 1.69 times of the control group, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Bundling leaves with root can maintain the postharvest quality of Chinese cabbage, improve the antioxidant capacity of fruit, delay the aging and decay of Chinese cabbage, and prolong the shelf life. This finding provides technical support for the new process of cabbage storage and transportation after harvest.