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    20 August 2022, Volume 59 Issue 8 Previous Issue   

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    Original article
    Effects of Water Stress on Growth and Development in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
    ZHENG Zipiao, XU Haijiang, CUI Jianping, LIN Tao, GUO Rensong, WANG Liang, ZHANG Dawei, WEI Xin, KONG fanyang
    2022, 59(8): 1821-1830.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.001
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (10382KB) ( )  

    【Objective】 The aim was to study the effect of water stress on growth and development in different cotton varieties,selected drought-resistant germplasm resources. It can help providing reference for drought-resistant breed selection. 【Method】 Eleven cotton varieties(strains) were used to investigate under normal irrigation(3,600 m3/hm2) and water stress(1,800 m3/hm2) condition,which for exploring the diversity of growth progress,morphological indexes,dry matter accumulation,antioxidant enzyme activity change and yield components. 【Result】 Water stress accelerated the growth progress of cotton,growth stages reduced 1-5 days of eleven cotton varieties(strains). The lack of water inhibited the growth of cotton plant,which also resulted in a decrease of fruit branch and bud number. Under the water stress condition,dry matter accumulation per plant reduced 0.70 g,5.68 g and 2.18 g in seedling stage,boll forming stage and boll opening stage. At the same time,the number of effective bolls per plant and the single boll weight decreased by 0.89 and 0.23 g. The reduction of seed cotton yield ranged from 1.93% to 37.14%. Antioxidant enzyme activity changed of eleven cotton varieties(strains),the activity of SOD,POD,CAT all went up of three cotton varieties(strains) Under water stress. 【Conclusion】 Considered all experimental varieties performance of growth progress,agronomic characters,dry matter accumulation,antioxidant enzyme activity change and yield characters,we found that the Growth and Development of number 9 and 2 were better under the water stress condition. And its yield reduction was insignificant. Cotton varieties 9 and 2 had the better drought resistance under the test condition.

    Study on the Influence of Solanum nigrum L. on Cotton Growth and Its Economic Threshold
    HAN Rui, ZHANG Quancheng, WANG Xiaoli, LIN Ping, WEI Yingfeng, WANG Jungang
    2022, 59(8): 1831-1837.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.002
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    【Objective】 Solanum nigrum L. is a troublesome weed seriously damaging cotton growth development. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of Solanum nigrum L. on cotton growth in cotton fields and yield traits and its economic threshold, and provide a scientific basis for the formulation of control parameters on Solanum nigrum L. in cotton fields and its control measures. 【Method】 The effects of different densities of Solanum nigrum L.(0, 1, 4, 7, 10, 15 plants/m2) on cotton agronomic traits and yield traits were investigated in field conditions. Then the functional relationship between different densities of Solanum nigrum L. and cotton yields loss rate was researched by using model fitting method. Control economic thresholds on Solanum nigrum L. in cotton were derived on the basis of the economic infestation level formula. 【Result】 The plant height, stem thick and the number of main stem nodes of cotton decreased with the increase of Solanum nigrum L. density, and Solanum nigrum L. had a significant effect on the middle boll number and yield of cotton(P< 0.05). When the density of Solanum nigrum L. is 1 plant /m2, the loss rate of cotton yield is 60.92%. When the density of Solanum nigrum L. reaches 15 plants /m2, the loss rate of cotton yield is 100%. The logarithmic regression model was the best in describing the relationship between Solanum nigrum L. density and yield loss as y =12.594ln(x) + 58.025.According to EIL and the logarithmic regression model, the economic threshold for artificial control of Solanum nigrum L. was 0.016 plants/m2, and the economic threshold for chemical control by 96% S-metolachlor EC was 0.017 plants/m2. 【Conclusion】 The inhibitory effects of Solanum nigrum L. on cotton were positively correlated with its density.According to the economic threshold analysis, when the density of Solanum nigrum L. in the field is higher than 0.016 plant /m2,it should be controlled in time.

    Machine-picked Cotton Population Shaping and Yield under Mulch Drip Irrigation with Different Spatial Distribution of Water and Nitrogen
    PU Shenghai, WANG Zeyu, DING Feng, NIU Xinxiang, JIN Xiuqin, MA Honghong, MA Xingwnag, LI Pan, PENG Yinshuang, LIU Xiaoli, TU Yongfeng, ZHAO Dongmei, LI Xiaowei, LI Yuntong
    2022, 59(8): 1838-1846.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.003
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    【Objective】 The spatial regulation of water and nitrogen has great benefits to shape the ideal machine-picked cotton population. 【Method】 Xinluzhong 66 was taken as the tested variety, the split-zone test design was adopted with three drip irrigation belt layouts of 2,3 and 5(marked as G2, G3 and G5, respectively) in the main zone and four nitrogen fertilizer topdressing strategies of 0, 238, 317 and 396 kg/hm2(marked as N0, N1, N2 and N3, respectively) in the sub -zone. Effects of different treatments on population index, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, yield and agronomic effects of N fertilizer in cotton growth period were analyzed. 【Results】 Nitrogen application rate had a significant effect on the molding of machine-picked cotton population, and the number of drip irrigation belt arrangement had a significant effect on stem diameter and the height of fruit branch beginning. The leaf area index(LAI) of machine-picked cotton was increased by increasing the number of tubes and nitrogen application, and was significantly affected in the middle and late growth period. Above-ground dry matter accumulation, boll number per plant, boll weight per plant, lint percentage and seed cotton yield of machine-picked cotton showed a single-peak trend with the increase of nitrogen application rate, and had the maximum value at N2 level. The interaction between the number of drip irrigation strips and nitrogen application rate had significant effects on the initial height of fruit branches, dry matter accumulation at the beginning of boll opening and yield.【Conclusion】 Machine-picked cotton population shaping and yield are significantly affected by spatial regulation of water and nitrogen. As for “10 cm-66 cm-10 cm-66 cm-10 cm” machine-picked cotton mode, the recommended combination of water and nitrogen is G5N2. Considering the planting cost, G3N2 combination can also be selected, but the irrigation frequency should be appropriately increased and the irrigation quota should be correspondingly reduced.

    Differences of Grain Yield, Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization Efficiency of Different Wheat Varieties in Southern Xinjiang
    ZHANG Hongzhi, GAO Yonghong, WANG Lihong, KONG Depeng, ZHANG Yueqiang, LI Jianfeng, WANG Zhong, GAO Xin, SHI Jia, ZHAO Qi, FAN Zheru
    2022, 59(8): 1847-1854.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.004
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    【Objective】 To study the difference of yield, N uptake and utilization efficiency and response to N fertilizer among different winter wheat varieties in southern Xinjiang in the hope of providing reference for N efficient breeding, selection of N efficient varieties and optimum application of N fertilizer.【Method】12 varieties(strain) were planted in Southern Xinjiang with 3 N application rates, the yield, nitrogen accumulation, nitrogen use efficiency(NUE), nitrogen uptake efficiency(UPE) and nitrogen utilization efficiency(UTE) of different wheat varieties under different nitrogen fertilizer levels were studied.【Result】With the increase of nitrogen application amount, the number of panicle and grain per panicle of different cultivars increased, the 1000-grain weight decreased, and the nitrogen accumulation and yield increased. The NUE, UPE and UTE decreased with the increase of N application. Cluster analysis was carried out on the N use efficiency of various varieties at different N levels. The varieties with higher NUE were Xindong 40, Xindong 60, 15/6317. Different nitrogen efficient varieties had different approaches to achieve high NUE. Under the condition of no nitrogen application(N0), Xindong 40, Xindong 60 and 15/6317 had high NUE, which was mainly due to the joint effects of UPE and UTE. The high nitrogen absorption efficiency of new winter 60 and 40 under nitrogen application was due to their higher UPE, while 15 / 6317 high nitrogen utilization rate was the common effect of nitrogen absorption efficiency and nitrogen utilization efficiency.【Conclusion】Different varieties have different approaches to achieve high nitrogen efficiency, so it is necessary to regulate and control the nitrogen absorption and utilization characteristics of different wheat varieties, improve the nitrogen absorption and utilization efficiency of wheat, maximize the exploitation and utilization of their high yield and high efficiency potential, thus achieving the increase in yield and efficiency.

    Effects of Compound Salt Stress on Germination of 7 Maize Varieties
    QI Tong, HUANG Jian, XU Fei, HAN Dengxu
    2022, 59(8): 1855-1863.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.005
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    【Objective】 To screen out salt-tolerant maize varieties suitable for planting in salinized soil in Xinjiang. 【Methods】 Seven maize materials were prepared with salt solution in natural saline soil in the field. The germination potential, germination rate, length of radicle and germ, fresh weight of radicle and germ could bewere used to reflect the salt tolerance of seeds at germination stage from multiple angles. 【Results】 The results showed that under salt stress, the germination rate, germination potential, number of r oots, length and weight of embryo and radicle of all maize varieties decreased gradually with the increase of salt concentration, and there were great differences among different varieties. Among them, the related indexes of New Xinyu 102 and Xinyu 110 decreased less than that of the control under the same salt concentration, showing a strong tolerance to salt, while the indexes of KWS3376 and KWS2564 decreased more than that of the control, showing a sensitivitysensitivity to salt, showing and a salt intolerance. 【Conclusion】 Xinyu 102 and Xinyu 110 were selected as maize varieties with high salt tolerance. Under these conditions, the germination potential, germination rate, length and weight of germ and radicle of maize decreased significantly when the content was over 0.9%, which seriously affected the germination of maize.

    Study on Suitable Sowing Date and Rate of Interplanting Rape with Green Manure in Orchards
    FU Yongqiang, ZHANG Yongxia, LONG Zaijun, RAN Hui, Aimaieraili Tuheti
    2022, 59(8): 1864-1870.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.006
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    【Objective】 To conduct experiments of interplanting rape as green manure in Aksu area walnut orchard of trees with the age of 7 years, and study the growth and effect of returning interplanting rape as green manure under different sowing dates and sowing rates with a view to providing a theoretical basis for the promotion and application of rape as green manure in that area. 【Methods】 To conduct experiments of interplanting rape as green manure in Aksu area walnut orchard of trees with the age of 7 years, and study the growth and effect of returning interplanting rape as green manure under different sowing dates and sowing rates with a view to providing a theoretical basis for the promotion and application of rape as green manure in that area. 【Results】 Different treatments had effects on the yield of green manure rape, plant nutrient content, orchard soil pH, water-soluble salt and soil nutrient. The yield of D1R2 was the highest, and the yield of fresh grass before turning was 42.88 t/hm2; The plant of total nitrogen content of D1R2 treatment was significantly higher than the other treatments, while the total phosphorus and potassium content of D2R3 and D2R2 treatment were highest. The soil pH of D1R1, D2R3 and D2R4 treatments was the lowest after the rape was overturning pressure for one month. The content of water-soluble salts of D1R4 and D2R1 treat-ments was the lowest. The content of organic matter, hydrolytic nitrogen and available ph-osphorus in D1R2 treatment was the highest, and the content of available potassium in D2R2 treatment was the highest. 【Conclusion】 Interplanting rape green manure in orchards in Aksu region can mak-e sufficient use of the water and nutrients in the thawed soil layer. Sowing in ice crust of rape of 22.5 kg/hm2 can increase the yield of rape green manure and improve the soil fertility of orchards.

    Effects of Different Light Quality Ratios on the Growth of Hydroponic Forage Barley
    YANG Jinyu, SUN Jiusheng, QIAO Xiaoyan, HUAI Guolong
    2022, 59(8): 1871-1876.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.007
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    【Objective】 To study the effects of different red and blue light ratios on the growth of hydroponic barley and determine the appropriate photoplasm. 【Methods】 Hydroponic forage barley was taken as the research object, the plant height, root length, fresh grass yield and dry grass yield of barley in one growth cycle were measured by LED white light, LED blue light and LED red blue light.【Result】The results showed that there were significant differences in the growth of barley under different light conditions. Under the condition of white light, the plant height of barley was 8.92 cm, which was significantly higher than those of the other two treatments. The plant height of blue light treatment was the lowest, 6.62 cm, which was significantly lower than those of the other two treatments; the root length of blue light treatment was the longest, 10.42cm, which was significantly higher than those of the other two treatments. There was no significant difference in the biomass of fresh grass and hay between blue light and red blue light, which was significantly higher than that of white light.【Conclusion】Under the condition of artificial light hydroponics, LED white light promotes the stem elongation and plant height of the upper part of barley plant, while the fresh weight, dry weight and root growth of the lower part are inhibited. Led blue light can promote the growth and biomass accumulation of barley roots, but plant height elongation is limited. The combination of red and blue LED can promote the increase of barley biomass, which is the recommended light quality for hydroponic cultivation of barley forage.

    Construction of Yeast Two-Hybrid Three-Frame cDNA Library and Screening of Interacting Proteins in FWL1 Membrane System of Pear Young Fruit
    SAI Jingyi, WEN Yue, HAO Zhichao, TIAN Jia
    2022, 59(8): 1877-1888.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.008
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    【Objective】 Screening of proteins that interact with FWL1 provides a basis of in-depth exploration of the mechanism of FWL1 gene regulation of fruit size. 【Methods】 Using ‘Duli’ pear, Korla fragrant pear, and Yali pear and Zaomeixiang were used as materials, to extract the mixed RNA of pulp tissue in the critical period of fruit cell division of four pear varieties was extracted. And then a yeast two-hybrid triple-frame cDNA library of pear young fruit FWL1 membrane system was constructed, and the quality of the library was identified. After that, The the bait vector was constructed and transformed into yeast, and the proteins that interacted with FWL1 were screened. The positive yeast clones that were initially screened were sequenced and Blast alignment was performed in NCBI to determine the candidate interacting proteins. 【Results】 The library capacity is was about 3×107 CFU, greater than 1×107 CFU, the average insert fragment is was greater than 1,000 bp, and the positive rate is was ≧98%. After testing the bait vector had no self-activating function, and 272 proteins interacting with FWL1 were screened out by co-transformation method. 【Conclusion】 After testing, the yeast two-hybrid three-frame cDNA library of the pear young fruit membrane system meets the basic conditions of the yeast two-hybrid library and is suitable for later screening of interacting proteins. The screened 272 interacting proteins were are expressed differently during fruit development, among which collagen and calcium-binding EGF domain-containing protein 1 and metallothionein-like protein may be related to pear fruit size development.

    Study on the Variation of Greenhouse Temperature and Fruit Quality Difference of Summer Black Grape with Two-Harvests-a-Year in Southern Xinjiang
    ZHANG Jinqiang, SU Xuede, LI Pengcheng, YANG Xiang, LI Ming, GUO Shaojie
    2022, 59(8): 1889-1895.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.009
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    【Objective】 To study the temperature variation of Summer black Grape during the first and second ripening periods in Solar Greenhouse in southern Xinjiang,and analyze the difference of fruit yield and quality between the two crops. 【Results】 The results showed that the indoor temperature of ‘Summer black’Grape during the whole growth period was higher than that of the first ripening,and the daily mean temperature of the second ripening was above 10 ℃. The daily variation trend of indoor temperature of the first ripening was similar to that of the second ripening,and the temperature of the first ripening was larger than that of the first ripening before the rapid fruit expansion period,while that of the second ripening was higher than that of the second ripening The diurnal variation range of temperature in the greenhouse was larger after the expansion stage,and the difference of temperature difference between day and night was the most obvious during the flowering stage and fruit color changing stage. In the flowering stage,the average temperature difference between day and night of the first ripening was 58.1% higher than that of the second ripening. During the fruit color changing period,the average temperature difference between day and night of the second harvest was 46.3% higher than that of the first harvest; The single grain weight,single ear weight and yield per mu of the first ripening fruit were higher than those of the second ripening,but the commercial fruit rate was 5% lower than that of the second ripening. 【Conclusion】 Through the analysis and comparison of the indoor temperature of the first and second ripening,there are great differences in the daily average temperature change and the diurnal temperature difference in greenhouse,but the daily temperature change of the indoor temperature in each growth period presents a “single peak” trend. Combined with the temperature demand of grape growth and development,the suitability of greenhouse temperature for fruit growth and quality formation in the second ripening was better than that in the first ripening,and the commercial fruit rate was high. But affected by other factors such as tree nutrition,light and so on,the yield of the first ripe fruit is better.

    Analysis of Leaf Anatomical Structure and Drought Resistance of 17 Grape Rootstock Varieties
    YOU Jiahui, GAO Lin, FENG Linjiao, Maimaiti Maidiniayi, ZHOU Long, LI Shude
    2022, 59(8): 1896-1906.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.010
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    【Objective】 To explore the relationship between leaf anatomical structure indexes and drought resistance of grape rootstocks, and to provide a convenient and effective method for screening grape varieties with drought resistance.【Methods】 The perennial field vines of 17 grape rootstock varieties were treated with drought stress(21d), the relative moisture content and electrical conductivity of stem and leaf were measured, and the anatomical structure characteristics of the leaves were observed and compared, and the drought resistance of grape rootstock varieties was evaluated by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. 【Result】The results show that, the relative water content of leaves of 17 grape rootstock varieties decreased greatly under drought stress, while the relative water content of stem nodes showed two trends of small increase and decrease, and the relative electrical conductivity of leaves and stem nodes showed different degrees of increase. And the order of sensitivity of leaf anatomical structure indexes to drought stress was:R/S> CTR> SR> TUE> TL> TLE> TP> TS. 【Conclusion】 The index of leaf anatomical structure is closely related to the drought resistance of grape rootstocks and can be used to identify their drought resistance. Combined with principal component analysis and cluster analysis comprehensive evaluation obtain, 1103P, 5BB and Riparia9 have highly drought resistant, 3309C, Riparia2, Riparia10 and Amurensis×Riparia4 have strong drought resistance, 1613C, Dogridge, Beta and Amurensis×Riparia1 have moderate drought resistance, Amurensis×Riparia3, Riparia7, Riparia Glorie, 101-14MG and Riparia4 have weak drought resistance, Ganzia has the weakest drought resistance.

    Effects of Fruit Set Heights on the Cluster Micro-Environment, Fruit Development and Wine Quality of ‘M-VSP’ Cultivation Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes in Extreme Arid Region
    BAI Shijian, HU Jinge, XUE Feng, ZHANG Wen, XIE Hui, ZHAO Ronghua, CHEN Guang, CAI Junshe
    2022, 59(8): 1907-1918.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.011
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    【Objective】 To study the effects of fruit set height on cluster micro-environment,fruit quality and wine quality of wine grape under ‘M-VSP’ in extreme arid region in the hope of providing a reference for the improvement of raw material quality of aging wine grape and the selection of suitable fruit set height for standardized cultivation of ‘M-VSP’ cultivation in this kind of environment. 【Methods】 Different fruit set height(40 cm,60 cm,80 cm and 100 cm)of 6 years old wine Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were taken as experiment materials to analyze the cluster microenvironment, fruit development, fruit quality and wine quality of different fruit set heights. 【Results】 Cluster microdomain temperature, humidity and PAR were different in different fruit set heights during the growth stage of wine grape, average temperature of 40cm was 0.84℃(2.77%) and 0.73℃(2.42%) lower than 80cm and 100cm respectively,temperature difference sum and heat hours of 40 cm exceed 35℃ decreased by 7.58 %,13.39 % and 10.54 %,13.87 % respectively compared with 80 cm and 100 cm,average humidity of cluster microdomain of 40 cm and 60 cm were increased by 8.86 %,4.90 % and 15.40%,11.21% compared with 80 cm and 100 cm. The temperature from noon to night of 40cm was the minimum, but humidity of all day was higher than others,PAR of 40 cm was decreased by 20.81 %,21.85 % and 37.95 % compare with 60 cm,80 cm and 100 cm,and PAR of 40 cm the whole day was the minimum. The higher bearing height,the smaller berry weight and berry volume and the higher degree of wilting at later fruit development,so sugar,acid and some phenols began to concentrate. Cluster weight was decreased along with bearing height increase,cluster weight and berry weight of 100 cm and 80 cm were decreased by 45.38 %,20.75 % and 16.67%,10.78 % compared with 40 cm. Cluster of 40 cm was moderation,wilting percent decreased by 91.41 % and 76.87 %,seed coat color and skin color value was relatively low. Reducing sugar mass concentration and total phenols of 40 cm was decreased by 6.32 %,8.76 %,13.35 % and 6.84 %,13.02 % and 8.63 % compared with 60 cm,80 cm and 100 cm respectively,total acid mass concentration of 40 cm was increased by 6.46 % compared with 60 cm and 80 cm,alcohol content and anthocyanins content of 40 cm were relatively low,however acid and tannins were higher. 【Conclusion】 ‘M-VSP’of 40 cm can effectively improve cluster microenvironment,slow down flucose accumulation speed,remain high acid,enhance phenolic content,thus improving the quality of wine grapes and wines.

    Effects of High Temperature Stress on Photosynthetic and Fluorescence Characteristics of Centennial Seedless and Wuhe Cuibao Grape Leaves
    NIU Qian, ZHANG Wen, HAN Shouan, WANG Min, WANG Wenyong, FENG Fuji, WANG Huan, GONG Jiaqi, LI Jiaying, TIAN Jia, XIE Hui
    2022, 59(8): 1919-1928.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.012
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    【Objective】 To investigate the effect of high temperature stress on its photosynthesis and photosynthetic characteristics through the changes of photosynthetic and fluorescence characteristics of Centennial Seedless and Wuhe Cuibao grapes under different light and temperature conditions. 【Methods】 In the experiment, the Centennial Seedless and Wuhe Cuibao grapes were used as materials, and the photosynthetic indexes were measured by instruments such as LI-6400, FMS-2. The effect of high temperature stress on photosynthesis of Centennial Seedless and Wuhe Cuibao grapes were comprehensively analyzed.【Results】 During the grape growth and development period(April to September) in 2020,the highest temperature in the high temperature environment was 43 ℃,the number of days when the highest daily temperature exceeded 40 ℃was 16 days;the highest temperature in the suitable temperature wasonly 38 ℃.And the highest PAR light radiation intensity values in high and suitable temperature were 1,887 and 1,730 µmol/(m2·s), respectively. The diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate of two cultivars both showed bimodal curve. At 10:00 the high temperature environmentPn reached up to 18.9 µmol/(m2·s), which was higher than that 13.0 µmol/(m2·s) in the suitable temperature. The light compensation point of ‘Centennial Seedless’ was higher in the suitable temperature environment, while Wuhe Cuibao was in the high temperature environment; the apparent quantum efficiency and dark respiration rate of the two varieties were higher in the high temperature environment. The qP and NPQ values of Wuhe Cuibao in high temperature environment were higher than suitable environment; ΦPSⅡ value and electron transfer rate of Centennial Seedless in high temperature environment significantly were greater than the suitable environment.【Conclusion】 In the high temperature environment, the net photosynthetic rate of Centennial Seedless is the highest, and its photosynthetic capacity is better.The variety can grow well in the high temperature environment because it has adapted to high temperature areas.

    Effects of Different Fertilizer Rates on the Growth of Tomato Seedlings
    GU Ningning, ZHANG Pu, XIE Yanru, TANG Dan, ZHAO Zhixin, DONG Ruifang, CUI Yongmin, QIN Yong
    2022, 59(8): 1929-1934.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.8.013
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    【Objective】 When the original tomato matrix formula was adopted in Hetian region of Xinjiang,different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizer were applied to cultivate tomato seedlings. 【Method】 Tomato 'ouguan' as the test material,adopt the method of raising seedlings with acupoints and plates,coconut bran, sand and organic fertilizer(20:1:1) were used as the basic matrix,One control and five different treatments were set with different fertilizer inputs,make sure all other conditions are consistent,plant height, stem diameter, maximum leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, root volume, soluble sugar, soluble protein and chlorophyll were determined.The effects of different fertilizer rates on growth and physiological and biochemical indexes of tomato seedlings were compared. In order to provide theoretical basis for cultivating high quality tomato seedlings in Hetian area. 【Result】 All treatments had different effects on tomato seedlings, among which T2 treatment had the largest leaf area was 21.29 cm2. T4 treatment has the highest fresh weight of the above-ground part, which was 4.23 g. The fresh weight of the underground part in T2 and T4 treatments was 0.78 g, which was higher than that of the control. T2 treatment had the longest root length was 15.54 cm; The dry weight of underground part under T4 treatment is the highest, which was 0.08 g. The value of root volume in T2 treatment was the highest, which was 6.17 cm3. The root-shoot ratio of T1, T3 and T4 was 0.19. T4 treatment had the highest seedling index(0.19). T4 treatment had the highest G value, is 0.013. T2 treatment had the highest soluble sugar content and soluble protein content, which were 8.15 mg/g and 11.88 mg/g, respectively. T2 treatment had the highest total chlorophyll content, which was 1.78 mg/g. T4 treatment was followed by 1.72 mg/g. 【Conclusion】 T4(nitrogen-phosphate-potassium content of 100,20 and 100 g/m3) fertilizer was more beneficial to the growth of tomato seedlings.It is recommended as fertilizer formula for tomato seedling in Hetian region of Xinjiang.

    Genetic Diversity and Cluster Analysis on the Main Fruit Characters of 52 Accessions of Capsicum
    YUAN Lei, JI Xuehua, ZHANG Guoru, SHI Linyuan, GUO Heyao, TANG Yaping, YANG Tao, YANG Shengbao
    2022, 59(8): 1935-1944.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.014
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    【Objective】 In this study, the main fruit characters of 52 pepper germplasm resources were investigated, and the genetic diversity and cluster analysis were carried out, in order to explore the germplasm resources that can be applied to genetic improvement, and lay the foundation for the innovation and sustainable development of pepper industry in Xinjiang. 【Method】 In this study, conventional detection methods and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) were used to investigate the main fruit phenotypic and quality traits of pepper. The genetic diversity, correlation, principal component and cluster analysis of all fruit traits of pepper were carried out by SPSS 25.0, R and origin 2018 software. Finally, the genetic cluster analysis of 52 pepper germplasm resources was completed. 【Result】 The results showed that in terms of genetic diversity, 13 main fruit characters in 52 pepper germplasm resources had different degrees of variation, among which the coefficient of variation of ventricular number was the lowest, 13.15%, the highest coefficient of variation of capsaicin content was 143.15%, the mean coefficient of variation was 58.19%, and the genetic difference of fruit quality traits was large; in correlation analysis, There was a significant positive correlation between fruit diameter, placenta size, pulp thickness, number of ventricles and single fruit weight. The color price was significant negatively correlated with capsaicin, Dihydrocapsaicin, total capsaicin and spicy degree. In the aspect of principal component analysis, the four main components were related to fruit weight, spicy degree, length and capsicum content respectively, with a contribution rate of 81.54%; in cluster analysis, the European distance was 7.5, The results showed that C.chinense, C.frutescens L and C.frutescens L could be separated from annual chilli. When the European distance was 2.1, 52 pepper germplasm could be divided into four categories. 【Conclusion】 Among the 52 pepper germplasm resources, there is relatively rich genetic diversity in fruit phenotype and quality traits, and there are some special germplasm materials that need to be excavated, which has important reference significance for the utilization and innovation of pepper germplasm resources in the later stage.

    Effects of Diffeent Drip Irrigation RateAmounts on Growth of Glycyrrhiza uralensis during Seedling Stage in Desert Areas
    Abdukeyoumu Abudurezike, Tuerson Tuerhong, Gulimira Aikebaier, ZHANG Yan, Ayixiamu Shawuer
    2022, 59(8): 1945-1955.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.015
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    【Objective】 To study the effects of different drip irrigation amounts on the growth and development of licorice root at seedling stage in desert area. 【Methods】 On the saline soil of the meadow in southern Tianshan mountain in Xinjiang, field plot experiment was carried out with no irrigation(X0), very few amount of irrigation(X1), few amount of irrigation(X2), middle amount of irrigation(X3) and high amount of irrigation(X4) treatments. The licorice seedling emergence rate, plant height, leaf area index(LAI), above ground dry weight, root length, root diameter and root dry weight were measured. 【Results】 The different amounts of irrigation treatments significantly influenced the growth and development of licorice during seedling stage(P < 0.01). The emergence rate of licorice were shown as X2>X3>X1>X4>X0. The emergence rate of X2 was up to 89.30%, 60.00% higher than that of X0. Plant height, LAI and abovegrounddryaboveground dry weight were shown as X4>X3 >X2>X1>X0, which reached the highest in X4 treatment, 63.54 cm, 3.75 and 1 139.56 t/hm2, respectively, which were 44.53cm, 2.60 and 745.91 t/hm2 higher than that of X0. The root length and root dry weight were shown as X2>X1>X3>X4>X0. The root length and root dry weight in X2 treatment were 67.05 cm and 519.17 t/hm2, which were 37.51 cm and 332.99 t/hm2 higher than that in X0. The root diameter and root-shoot ratio were shownasshown as X1>X2>X3>X4>X0, both of which reached the maximum in the X1 treatment, 11.09 mm and 1.03, respectively, which were 7.31 mm and 0.70 higher than that of X0. 【Conclusion】 In summary, the amount of irrigation had has a significant influence on the growth and development of licorice during the seedling stage in desert areas. Thus, in the cultivation of licorice in desert areas, attention should be paid to the reasonable regulation of irrigation amount. In this research, it is suggested to regulate the drip irrigation amount within 2,500 to 5,000 m3 / hm2.

    Comprehensive Evaluation of Fruit Quality Characteristics of 5 Fresh Jujube Varieties
    FAN Dingyu, JIN Juan, Abudoukayoumu Ayimaiti, YANG Lei, ZHAO Xiaomei, HAO Qing
    2022, 59(8): 1956-1964.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.016
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    【Objective】 Through the comprehensive evaluation of fruit quality characteristics of fresh jujube varieties, the scientific basis was provided for the selection and breeding of excellent fresh jujube varieties suitable for Xinjiang production and worthy of promotion 【Method】 In this experiment, five fresh jujube varieties in Aksu region were used as materials. The anatomical structure of jujube peel was observed by paraffin section method, and the main quality indexes were determined by physiological and biochemical methods. The fruit quality of different fresh jujube varieties was evaluated by variance analysis, correlation analysis and principal component analysis.【Result】 The results showed that the total acid, waxy layer thickness, stratum corneum thickness, and sub-epidermal layer thickness of different fresh jujube fruit quality indicators were slightly different, but there were significant differences among other indicators (P <0.05). The correlation analysis of 26 quality factors of different fresh jujube showed that 24 of them were significantly correlated, and the correlation coefficient between starch and pectin was 0.970. Principal component analysis revealed four uncorrelated principal components, and their cumulative contribution rate was 96.606%. According to the results of principal component analysis, the order of comprehensive score of each variety is as follows: Panzao > Dongzao > Rucuimi > Fucuimi > Saimisu. 【Conclusion】 The results showed that among the five fresh jujube varieties, the comprehensive score of Panzao is the highest, and the comprehensive quality characteristics are better than other varieties.

    Effects of Saline-alkali Stress on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Muskmelon
    XIONG Tao, YAN Miao, WANG Haojie, MAO Jiancai, WANG Jiangtao, HU Guozhi
    2022, 59(8): 1965-1974.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.017
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    【Objective】 To analyze the effects of different levels of salt stress on the growth of muskmelon from two stages of seed germination and seedling development, and to provide theoretical basis for the screening of salt-tolerant resources of muskmelon. 【Method】 Four muskmelon varieties were used as experimental research materials, three treatment concentrations were set, and salt stress treatment was carried out at seed germination stage and seedling stage, respectively, to study the effects of different concentration of salt treatment on seed germination, seedling growth and root morphological characteristics. 【Results】 The germination rate and germination potential of the four melon varieties under low salt stress could maintain more than 50% and 60%, but the germination potential and germination rate under high salt stress showed significant decrease.The comprehensive germination index of melon varieties was reticulated Wangwenxiang>Fengwei5>Xizhoumi 17>Huangpi 9818. At 150 mmol/L salt concentration, Huangpi 9818 was significantly inhibited, and its germination rate was 49.8% longer than that of CK. Plant height, stem diameter and aboveground/below biomass accumulation of all melon varieties showed a decreasing trend with the increase of salt stress concentration, and had a significant negative correlation with high salt concentration. However, the inhibition of Wangwenxiang was the least under the same concentration treatment.Under salt stress, the root-shoot ratio of the four kinds of muskmelon showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing with the increase of concentration, and it was significantly higher than that of CK under high salt concentration. The salt sensitivity index and tolerance index of each melon decreased, especially the tolerance index decreased significantly when the concentration was 100 mmol·L-1, indicating that the sensitivity of the four melon varieties to high salt stress increased, and their salt tolerance decreased.Under salt stress, the root morphological parameters of four kinds of muskmelon were basically the same, all showed a downward trend, and the difference was significant compared with that of CK. 【Conclusion】 The comprehensive performance of Wangwenxiang was better than the other three varieties in the seed germination and seedling growth stages under salt stress, and showed better tolerance to salt environment. Therefore, Wangwenxiang could be used as an alternative salt tolerant germplasm resource.

    Study on the Effects of Different Temperatures on Phenylethanol Glycosides duringthe Preparation of Cistanche deserticola Extractum and the Antioxidant Activities of the Extractum
    HAN Haixia, YOU Lin, ZHONG Zhiming, WANG Na, LI Shuang
    2022, 59(8): 1975-1983.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.018
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    【Objective】 To study tle effects of different temperatures on the content of phenylethanoid glycosides, echinacoside and verbascoside in Cistanche deserticola were studied, and the antioxidant capacity of C. deserticola extractum was also studied. 【Method】 UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC were used to determine the content of phenylethanoid glycosides, echinacoside and verbascoside in C. deserticola with different drying temperatures, different extraction temperatures, different concentration temperatures and different water bath steaming temperatures.The antioxidant capacity of C. deserticola extractum was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl free radical scavenging capacity test and total reducing power test. 【Result】 The content of phenylethanoid glycosides, echinacoside in C. deserticola dried in the shade was higher than that of sundry. Compared to dried in the shade, the content of above three constituents was the hightst when the drying temperature was 60℃. At 80℃, Three constituents was higher than that of other extraction temperatures.Concentration efficiency was obviously increased with the increase of concentration temperature. When the concentration temperature was increased from 35℃ to 60 ℃, the time of concentration of C. deserticola extract was shortened from 7 h to 0.7 h, at this point, Three constituents in concentrated solution was alsohas the highest concentration. When the C. deserticola extract was steamed by water bath, the steaming temperature increased and the time needed for steaming was obviously shortened. When the steaming temperature increased from 40℃ to 85℃, the time of steaming was shortened from 12 h to 1.2 h, and the three constituents in the C. deserticolaextractum was also the highest.In the range of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL, the clearance rate of C. deserticola extractum on DPPH, ABTS, and hydroxyl radicalswas increased with the increase of concentration. The maximum clearance rate on DPPH, ABTS, and hydroxyl radicals reached 92.23%, 83.23%, 91.26%, respectively,and the IC50 value was 0.017 mg/mL, 0.023 mg/mL, 0.248 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of C. deserticola extractumwas slightly below vitamin C in the range of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. 【Conclusion】 Different temperatures has a great influenceon on the content of phenylethanoid glycosides, echinacoside and verbascoside in the process of drying, extraction, concentration and water bath steaming. C. deserticola extractum has strong antioxidant activity.

    Study on Biological properties of Verticillium and Virulence Comparison of 16 Fungicides
    RONG Hua, ZHANG Luhui, LIU Long, ZHENG Tongtong, LEI Bin, GUO Qingyuan
    2022, 59(8): 1984-1992.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.019
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    【Objective】 Study on biological properties of Verticillium and virulence comparison of 16 fungicides. To clarify the pathogen characteristics, and then to provide a basis for disease prevention and control. 【Methods】 This study determined the main biological properties by myphal growth rate of the pathogen and conducted virulence comparison of 16 fungicides. 【Results】 The pathogen was Char medium; growth temperature range of 5-35 ℃, 25-30 ℃, 57 ℃; optimal carbon and nitrogen sources are lactose and potassium nitrate; pH 4.0-11.0, fastest at pH 11.0 and tolerant to partial acidic environment and best under full light at 24 h. The virulence results showed that 16 agents had significantly different inhibitory effects; 40% and 450 g/L were strong, with EC50 values of 0.0891 mg/L and 0.91 mg/L respectively; 30% oxamycin, 30% phenylpropylene azole, 1.8% simamide acetate(EC50:100-155 mg/L). 【Conclusion】 The optimal temperature range of malticillium is 25-30℃, acid resistance and the best growth under full light; 40% mycelic, 450 g/L fresh amine and 30% oxamycin have a strong or strong antibacterial effect on pathogens, which can be used as the first choice in field disease prevention test.

    Inversion of Picea schrenkiana var. tianshanica Growing Stock Based on WorldView-2 Image and Random Forest Algorithm
    LV Jincheng, WANG Zhenxi, YANG Yongqiang, QU Yanbin, MA Qiyao
    2022, 59(8): 1992-1998.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.020
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    【Objective】 Taking the Picea schrenkiana var. tianshanica of Qiaxi National Forest Park in Gongliu County, western Tianshan, Xinjiang as the research object, World View-2 images and the sample plot scale per tree as the data source, the volume of Picea schrenkiana var. tianshanica was retrieved by looking for the relationship between remote sensing factors and volume. The purpose of this project is to provide a reference basis for Picea schrenkiana var. tianshanica ecological restoration and scientific management after the implementation of the natural forest protection project. 【Method】 The spectral information, texture factor and vegetation index of the sample plot were extracted by eCognition Developer, and a model was established to retrieve the volume of Picea schrenkiana var. tianshanica forest by random forest algorithm. 【Result】The random forest algorithm was used to screen 24 kinds of remote sensing factors, and the five characteristic variables which had the greatest influence on the stock were selected. The five characteristic variables with the largest impact on the accumulation were selected, respectively, NDVI1, NDVI2, RVI2, homogeneity(Homogeneity) and correlation(Correlation), thus establishing a random forest regression model. Its interpretation was up to 81.27%, the determination coefficient R2 was = 0.8648(P <0.05) and the accuracy of estimating sample plot volume was 86.38%. 【Conclusion】 The stochastic forest regression model established by random forest algorithm and WorldView-2 image can effectively retrieve the volume of Picea schrenkiana var. tianshanica.

    Isolation and Identification of Pathogen of Potato Scab and Its Growth Characteristics from Zepu Area in Xinjiang
    SONG Suqin, GAO Haifeng, LV Zhuo, TANG Qiyong, GU Meiying, ZHANG Zhidong, CHU Min, ZHU Jing, WANG Wei
    2022, 59(8): 1999-2006.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.021
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    【Objective】 The purpose of this study is to determine the species and growth characteristics of potato scab pathogen in Aikule Township, Kashgar Prefecture, Xinjiang, for the potato scab disease affected the yield and quality of potato seriously, and caused great losses to potato industry, especially to virus-free seed potato in Xinjiang. 【Method】 The pathogen was isolated and identified by tissue separation method combined with Koch's rule, microscopic morphology and 16 S rDNA. Then different carbon sources and nitrogen sources were selected to test its growth characteristics. 【Result】 Based on its morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence, the pathogen of this disease was identified as Streptomyces acidiscabies from this area, which produced white-smooth curved spores with melanin and soluble pigment. Eight kinds of the carbon sources and two kinds of nitrogen sources were tested its growth period, such as glucose, methionine(Met) and histidine(His) etc. It could produce reticulate netlike scab after inoculatedon healthy potato tubers by smearing the tuber skin with spores suspension. The optimum growth temperature was 30℃, the pH was 7, and the optimum carbon and nitrogen sources were glucose and methionine separately. 【Conclusion】 The pathogen of the potato scab are isolated and identified from this area, and its growth characteristics were proved in this study, which would be the beneficial research basis for controlling this disease in Xinjiang.

    Study on the Differences of Three key Enzyme Activities of Different Geographical Populations of Aphis gossypii in Xinjiang and Their Correlation with Resistance
    WANG Xiaoli, HAN Rui, ZHANG Quancheng, ZHAO Pengcheng, WANG Jungang
    2022, 59(8): 2007-2013.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.022
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    【Objective】Objective to explore the difference of three enzyme activities and drug resistance of different geographical populations of Aphis gossypii in Xinjiang. 【Methods】 The activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase of Aphis gossypii and laboratory sensitive populations in Korla, Wujiaqu, Shihezi, Kuitun and Hami of Xinjiang were determined, and the relationship between the activities of the three enzymes and imidacloprid resistance was analyzed. 【Results】 The specific activity ratios of acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase in Korla, Wujiaqu, Shihezi, Kuitun and Hami were 4.2, 2.7, 2.3, 2.5, 2.1 times and 2.3, 1.5, 1.3, 2.5, 2.1 times, respectively(P < 0.05); the specific activity ratios of carboxylesterase were 6.5, 4.2, 3.4, 2.7, 1.2 times, except Hami, the other areas were significantly higher than 1.2 times There was a certain correlation between two key detoxification enzymes and one key neurotransmitter enzyme of Aphis gossypii and drug resistance.【Conclusion】 The results showed that the activities of three kinds of enzymes in different populations were significantly higher than those in sensitive populations(P <0.05), and there were differences among them. Carboxylesterase may play an important role in the process of Aphis gossypii feeling imidacloprid stress.

    Parameter Calibration of Discrete Element Simulation of Farmland Silt in Xinjiang
    LI Qingchao, ZHENG Xuan, LIU Jinbao, YANG Huaijun, WANG Zilong, ZHANG Luyun
    2022, 59(8): 2014-2024.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.023
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    【Objective】 To calibrate the discrete element simulation model of silt in Xinjiang and quantitatively analyze the interaction between soil touching parts of agricultural machinery and soil. 【Methods】 EDEM discrete element simulation software was used, the contact parameters between soil and soil contact material(65 Mn) were calibrated by slope test, and the contact parameters between soil and soil were calibrated by stacking angle test. 【Results】 EDEM distance of slope was taken as the optimization objective, the regression analysis was carried out, and an optimal combination of discrete element model parameters between soil and 65 Mn was obtained: recovery coefficient 0.51, static friction coefficient 0.56, dynamic friction coefficient 0.08, JKR surface energy 4.12; Taking the stacking angle as the optimization objective, an optimal combination of discrete element model parameters between soils is obtained: recovery coefficient 0.57, static friction coefficient 0.65, dynamic friction coefficient 0.23 and JKR surface energy 4.49. The accuracy of the discrete element contact model was verified. The simulation test of slope test and stacking angle test was compared with the actual test. The errors of rolling distance and stacking angle were 6.05% and 1.28% respectively. 【Conclusion】 Under the conditions of the established simulation model, the relative errors between the plow body simulation test and the actual test were 5.69%, 5.95% and 6.49% at the working speeds of 8, 9 and 10 km/h.

    Determination of Fiber Component Content in the Residual Branches of Fruit Trees in South Xinjiang Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy
    GAO Qian, WANG Yamei, WU Pingfan, ZHANG Hongmei, ZHOU Ling
    2022, 59(8): 2025-2032.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.024
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    【Objective】 The detection of fiber components in fruit tree stumps generally has the problems of time-consuming, complicated operation and high test cost. The research uses near-infrared spectroscopy technology combined with chemometrics to quickly detect the content of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in the stumps of fruit trees in southern Xinjiang. 【Method】 Taking 150 samples of fruit tree stumps collected from various parts of southern Xinjiang as the research object, using near-infrared spectroscopy technology combined with partial least squares(PLS), Using different pre-processing and characteristic waveband screening methods to optimize the prediction model of the content of each fiber component. 【Result】 The three fiber component near-infrared detection models established by the SG convolution smoothing method preprocessing combined with the competitive adaptive weight sampling method(CARS) optimized feature band have the best effect, and the correlation coefficients r are 0.950,3, 0.948,7 and 0.937,1, respectively. The coefficients of determination R2 are 0.900,8, 0.896,5, and 0.875,1, the corrected standard deviations RMSEC were 0.007,0, 0.005,4, and 0.005,1, and the predicted standard deviations RMSEP were 0.011,8, 0.008,9, and 0.008,8, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The use of near-infrared spectroscopy technology can achieve rapid quantitative detection of the three components of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in fruit tree stumps in South Xinjiang.

    Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals As and Cd in Typical Soils in Xinjiang
    LIU Guohong, LENG Bingbing, BIAN Qingyong, WEI Yayuan, WANG Zhiguo
    2022, 59(8): 2033-2040.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.025
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    【Objective】 To investigate the content and distribution of heavy metals in typical heavy metal contaminated areas of Xinjiang(Regiment 123 and Regiment 127 in Kuitun City and Sixty Household Township of Urumqi County) and evaluate their safety and risk by sampling and measuring the content of As and Cd in the soil.【Method】 The heavy metal pollution and ecological risk of typical soils in typical farmland in Kuitun City and Sixty Household Township of Urumqi County were evaluated by pollution index method and potential risk index method.【Result】 The ratio of the mean value of As and Cd to the background value was less than 1,which was lower than the background value of Xinjiang soil. The ratio of the mean value and background value of Heavy metal As in six samples from Regiment 123 and Regiment 127 in Kuitun City was 1.91,which was higher than the background value of Xinjiang soil. The ratio of the mean value of heavy metal Cd to the background value was 0.92,which was lower than the background value of Xinjiang soil. According to the environmental quality evaluation standard of producing area of edible agricultural products,through the single factor pollution index and comprehensive pollution index,it could be seen that the range of the two heavy metals in the samples of Sixty Household Township of Urumqi County and Kuitun City were Pi≤0.7 or 0.7 < Pi≤1.0,Px≤0.7,and the pollution level was clean or still clean. Based on the assessment of potential ecological risk of farmland,the sample areas of Sixty Household Township of Urumqi County and Kuitun City were at low ecological risk. 【Conclusion】 The contents of heavy metal As and Cd in the soils of Sixty Household Township of Urumqi County and Kuitun City,Xinjiang are lower than the environmental quality assessment standard of edible agricultural products producing area,and the soil was not polluted by heavy metals.

    Remote Sensing Evaluation of Vegetation Restoration and Analysis of Driving Factors of Vegetation Change in the Desert Section of Hotan River
    Cairenjiapu , CAO Biao, BAI Yungang, LIU Xuhui, YU Qiying, LIU Minjie
    2022, 59(8): 2041-2050.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.026
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    【Objective】 To explore the vegetation changes of Hotan River desert section since the ecological water transport, evaluate the governance effect in the desert section, determine the driving factors of vegetation changes in the hope of providing guidance for the ecological restoration of Hotan River desert section. 【Method】 The NDVI values of vegetation response characteristics since ecological water diversion in the desert section of Hotan River were systematically studied by using the impact data of satellite remote sensing and field investigation data.【Result】 Since the ecological water conveyance in 2002, the NDVI value of Hotan River desert section increased as a whole, with an average increase of 37.24%. The ecological water diversion had a significant effect on the vegetation within the range of 1~2.75 km, and the NDVI value increased first, then decreased, and finally increased. The vegetation in the whole desert section was good in the upper and lower reaches, but weak in the middle section. The area with fragile vegetation was located 15 ~115 km downstream of the confluence of the two rivers. There was a positive correlation between NDVI value and temperature and water consumption in the desert section.【Conclusion】 The ecological water conveyance of Hotan River promotes the restoration of ecological vegetation on both banks of the river, and the trend of vegetation improvement is obvious. The change of NDVI value in desert section is closely related to temperature and water consumption in river reach. The increase of temperature and water consumption(ecological water diversion) in the upper and lower reaches of the desert section is conducive to the vegetation improvement in the River.

    Evaluation and Dynamic Analysis of Forage Value of Main Grassland Types in the Middle Section of Tianshan Mountains
    ZHANG Xianhua, LI Jiangyan, ZHU Jinzhong
    2022, 59(8): 2051-2057.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.027
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    【Objective】 Tianshan is an important mountain pasture in Xinjiang. In order to liberate the dynamics of grassland community quality under grazing conditions. 【Method】 the continuous positioning method was used to analyze the forage value dynamics of plant communities from 1985 to 2001. 【Result】 The research results showed that:(1) the good forage was the main composition in the desert steppe which can account for 80.1% of the average aboveground biomass over the years ; and the excellent and good forage can account for 59.5% of the aboveground biomass in grassland ; the value of the meadow grass communitye was low, and the medium and low forage grasses can account for 91.6% of the average over the years. (2) the aboveground biomass had a state of fluctuation in different grassland types, and different grassland types have different rules.it had lower annual variability in high forage value and lower annual variability in the community. 【Conclusion】 (1) The forage value of the grassland community is unstable, and it is greatly affected by the fluctuation of the biomass on the various pasture grasslands of the community. (2) The three types of grassland forages have different types of growth and decline patterns, which are always in continuous fluctuations between each year, and the fluctuation coefficient and annual variability between the years are large. (3) The fluctuations of the mountain desert grassland and mountain grassland are reversible, while the mountain grassland The changes in the feeding value of the main groups of the meadows cannot be completely restored to the original state, but only approaching the equilibrium state, which is a manifestation of the degradation of the community's feeding value due to over-utilization.

    Acute Toxicity of Three Aquatic Drugs to the Gymnodiptychus dybowskii
    ZHANG Tao, HU Jiangwei, LIU Hong, LI Dong, SHA Wenjun, WANG Xiaoyu, CAI Lingang, NIU Jiangong
    2022, 59(8): 2058-2064.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.028
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    【Objective】 To study the acute toxicity of three aquatic drugs to the Gymnodiptyc husdybowskii,provide scientific data for the fry breeding and germplasm resource protection of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii. 【Method】 The acute toxicity of formaldehyde, salt and high polyiod- ine to Gymnodiptychus dybowski juveniles with body weight of(75.23±5.08)g, was studiedat water temperature of(12.2±0.2)℃, pH of(8.6±0.1) and dissolved oxygen of(8.4±0.3) mg/L in still water.【Result】 The semi-lethal concentrations(LD50) of Gymnodiptychus dybowski juveniles in formaldehyde, salt and high polyiodine were 89.27, 13580.67 and 44.89 at 24 h, 69.21,13010.59 and 38.46 mg/L at 48 h,56.23, 12 824.48 and 34.74 mg/L at 72 h, 48.07 mg/L, 12621.56 mg/L and 32.42 mg/L at 96h, and the safe concentrations were 12.48 mg/L, 3 582.37 and 8.47 mg/L.The sensitivity of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii juveniles to the three drugs was high polyiodine>formaldehyde>salt, all of which were good drugs to prevent and treat the disease of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii juveniles.【Conclusion】 According to the grading standard of ecotoxicological hazard,high polyiodineand formaldehyde are a medium toxic drug, while salt is a low toxicity drug. In the prevention and treatment of juvenile fish diseases, drug dose concentration and immersion time should be strictly controlled.

    Biological Characteristics of Schizothorax pseudaksaiensis
    WANG Chengxin, LIU Fei, CHEN Shengao, YANG Haoke, XIE Congxin, WEI Qi
    2022, 59(8): 2065-2072.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.029
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    【Objective】To research the system biology of Schizothorax pseudaksaiensis in Turks River from Ili river. 【Method】 From 2018 to 2020,to collected sampling of Schizothorax pseudaksaiensis,using traditional measurement methods to identify biological and age, analyze its growth characteristics. 【Result】 The morphological characteristics of the Turks River Schizothorax pseudaksaiensis were slightly different from those of other water system Schizothorax. There was no hard keratin in the lower edge of the mouth; the back of the body was finely scaled and the buttocks were more developed; the back of the body was light blue and slightly yellow, The sides and abdomen are silvery white, and there are spots on the sides of small individuals. Schizothorax pseudaksaiensis, The body length means is(21.56±10.48) cm, it is too distributed. The mean weight means is(404.00±483.11) g, it is too distributed. The age mean is 7.36±3.97+,the age is too distributed, superior individuals ages 5+;Length and weight relationships: W=0.022L3R2=0.959 4);Progressive length L∞=65.48 cm,the coefficient of growth k=0.06,W∞=4 716.67 g,t0 = 0.09,ti=18.40+;The population(n=105) of progressive length and weight growth relationship: Lt = 65.48(1-e-0.06(t -0.09)), Wt = 4716.67(1-e-0.06(t -0.09)3.The population of GSI and fullness: GSI=(3.54±1.94), K=(2.34±0.63). 【Conclusion】 The Turks River Schizothorax pseudaksaiensis in the Ili River water system, Schizothorax pseudaksaiensis is a large Local fish with fine scales. Its age structure is quite different, grows at a uniform speed, and has strong adaptability. The waters of the Turks River have better ecology, Fish have a long growth cycle, relatively stable traits, an older turning point, a long sexual maturity cycle, and a sharp decline in resources. To carry out the construction of germplasm resource protection zones to consolidate the ecological balance of fishery resources in the upstream tributaries of the Ili River.

    Study on Slaughter Performance and Six- Month -Old Mutton Composition of Hetian Multi-fetal Red Sheep
    HE Zonglong, HOU Chenxi, HONG Wenjuan, YAO Lidan, Jueken Aniwashi
    2022, 59(8): 2073-2080.  DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.08.030
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    【Objective】 In order to understand the slaughter performance and mutton composition of Hetian multi-fetal red sheep, and to provide reference for its development and utilization. 【Method】 In this experiment, six male Hetian multi-fetal red sheep at three stages of 6-month-old lamb, 12-month-old lamb and 2-year-old adult lamb were selected, and their slaughter performance and mutton composition of 6-month-old lamb were determined. 【Result】 The results showed that:the slaughter rate of 6-month-old lamb was significantly different from that of adult lambs(P<0.01),and that between the lambs and the aged lambs was significant(P<0.05);Is fat tail used as clean meat, the net meat rate and bone to meat ratio of 6-month-old lamb were significantly different from those of one year old and adult sheep(P<0.01);In addition to the bone to meat ratio of one year old sheep,fat tail had significant difference in net meat rate and bone to meat ratio of Hetian multi-fetal red sheep at different ages(P<0.05);The results showed that the content of moisture and Crude fat in 6-month-old Hetian multi-fetal red sheep was(98.00±0.95 g/kg),and the contents of amino acids and minerals were rich,including(1,600.00±2.66)mg/kg of phosphorus,(41.30±1.71)g/kg of oleic acid and(17.40±1.30)g/kg of stearic acid. 【Conclusion】 To sum up:the carcass quality of one year old sheep and adult sheep is better than that of 6-month-old sheep, and the management of Hetian multi-fetal red sheep at 6-month-old needs to be strengthened;fat tail has a great impact on slaughter performance of Hetian multi-fetal red sheep;the meat composition of 6-month-old Hetian multi-fetal red sheep is more comprehensive and has higher nutritional value.