Xinjiang Agricultural Sciences ›› 2022, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (7): 1582-1589.DOI: 10.6048/j.issn.1001-4330.2022.07.003

• Crop Genetics and Breeding·Cultivation Physiology·Germplasm Resources • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of Water and Nitrogen Coupling on Physiological Growth and Yield of Wheat under Drip Irrigation

LIU Guohong1(), FU Yanbo1,2,3, BIAN Qingyong2, WEI Yayuan2, WEI Yanhong2, ZHANG Wanxu4, ZHU Jinquan2   

  1. 1. Turpan Institute of Agricultural Sciences,Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Xinjiang Turpan,838000,China
    2. Baicheng Agricultural Experimental Station of Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences / National Soil Quality Aksu Observation Experimental Station, Xinjiang Aksu 843000,China
    3. Institute of Soil Fertilizer and Agricultural Water Conservation, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830091,China
    4. Agricultural Extension Technology Station of Xinjiang Corps, Urumqi 830000, China
  • Received:2021-10-11 Online:2022-07-20 Published:2022-08-04
  • Contact: LIU Guohong
  • Supported by:
    Construction of Resource Sharing Platform of Aksu Field Observation Stati;Construction of National Soil Quality Aksu Observation and Test Station;Innovation Environment (Talents, Base) Construction Special Project-Resource Sharing Platform Construction of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region(PT2110);Excellent Young Scientific and Technological Talents Training Project(2020Q030);Research and Demonstration of Water and Fertilizer Integration Technology in Southern Xinjiang

水氮耦合对滴灌小麦生理生长及产量的影响

刘国宏1(), 付彦博1,2,3, 扁青永2, 魏亚媛2, 魏彦宏2, 张万旭4, 朱锦泉2   

  1. 1.新疆农业科学院吐鲁番农业科学研究所,新疆吐鲁番 838000
    2.新疆农业科学院拜城农业试验站/国家土壤质量阿克苏观测试验站,新疆阿克苏 843000
    3.新疆农业科学院土壤肥料与农业节水研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830091
    4.新疆兵团农业推广技术总站,乌鲁木齐 830091
  • 通讯作者: 刘国宏
  • 作者简介:刘国宏(1979-),男,新疆乌鲁木齐人,副研究员,研究方向水肥高效利用,(E-mail) lghdjs@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    土壤质量阿克苏野外观测站资源共享平台建设;国家土壤质量阿克苏观测试验站建设项目;自治区创新环境(人才、基地)建设专项-资源共享平台建(PT2110);优秀青年科技人才培养项目“南疆冬小麦滴灌水肥一体化技术研究与示范”(2020Q030)

Abstract:

【Objective】 To study the effects of water and fertilizer coupling on physiological growth and yield of winter wheat under drip irrigation in southern Xinjiang. 【Method】 Xindong 52 was used as the test material, and the two-factor split zone experiment was designed. Three levels of irrigation treatment were set: W1 (2,241 m3/hm2), W2 (3,486 m3/hm2) and W3 (4,731 m3/hm2). Four levels of fertilization treatment (nitrogen) were set: N0 (0 kg/hm2), N1 (135 kg/hm2), N2 (195 kg/hm2), N3 (255 kg/hm2). The effects of different combinations of water and nitrogen on plant height, leaf area, photosynthetic characteristics (Pn,Tr,Gs,Ci), yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat under drip irrigation were analyzed.【Result】 (1) With the increase of irrigation amount or N amount, the plant height, leaf area, photosynthetic characteristics and yield of Xindong 52 winter wheat increased synchronously.(2) When the irrigation amount was too low (W1 treatment), increasing N fertilizer did not significantly improve the yield and photosynthetic performance; When the irrigation amount was increased to W2 and W3 levels, plant height, leaf area, photosynthetic characteristics and yield showed an obvious trend of increase with the increase of N application rate, which showed a good effect of waterborne fertilizer. (3) Among all treatments, W3N2 (4,731 m3/hm2 irrigation, N1 95 kg/hm2 application) had the highest yield (8,570 kg/hm2), and the corresponding photosynthetic characteristic values also reached the maximum; (4) The yield of W2N2 treatment (3,486 m3/hm2 and 195 kg/hm2) was at the sub-maximum value (8,465 kg/hm2). The photosynthetic characteristic value of W2N2 was not the maximum, but the agricultural utilization rate of N fertilizer reached the maximum (16.69 kg/kg), and the production efficiency of irrigation water also reached the maximum (1.66 kg/m3). (5) Compared with W3N2, the yield of W2N2 decreased by 105kg/hm2 (decreased by 1.2%), but the irrigation amount decreased by 1,245 m3/hm2 (decreased by 26.3%). 【Conclusion】 The technical combination of irrigation water of 3,486 m3/hm2 and nitrogen fertilizer of 195 kg/hm2 can be used as the cost-saving and efficiency-increase production scheme of "Xindong 52" winter wheat.

Key words: coupling of water and fertilizer, drip irrigation winter wheat, physiological growth, yield

摘要:

【目的】研究新疆南疆地区水肥耦合对滴灌冬小麦生理生长及产量的影响。【方法】以新冬52号为供试材料,两因素裂区试验设计,设置灌水处理3个水平:W1(2 241m3/hm2)、W2(3 486m3/hm2)、W3(4 731m3/hm2);设置施肥处理(氮素)4个水平:N0(0 kg/hm2)、N1(135 kg/hm2)、N2(195 kg/hm2)、N3(255 kg/hm2),分析不同水氮组合对滴灌冬小麦株高、叶面积、光合特性(净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)、细胞间隙CO2浓度(Ci)、产量及水氮利用效率的变化。【结果】(1)随着灌水量的增加或施N的增加, 新冬52号冬小麦的株高、叶面积、光合特性和产量呈现同步增加趋势;(2)但灌水量过少时(W1处理),增加N并不明显提高产量和光合性能;当灌水量提高到W2和W3水平后,株高、叶面积、光合特性和产量随着施N的增加呈现明显的增加趋势,表现出以水带肥的良好效果。 (3)在各处理中, W3N2(灌水4 731m3/hm2、施氮N195kg/hm2)的产量最大(8 570 kg/hm2),相对应的各项光合特性值也达到最大值; (4)W2N2处理(灌水3 486m3/hm2、施N195kg/hm2)的产量则处于次大值(8 465 kg/hm2),W2N2的光合特性值并非最大,但其N农学利用率达到最大值(16.69 kg/kg ),灌溉水生产效率也达到最大值(1.66 kg/m3 );(5)W2N2与W3N2相比,虽然产量减少了105 kg/hm2(减少1.2%),但灌水量减少了1 245 m3/h2(减少26.3%)、施肥量减少60 kg/hm2(减少23.53%)。【结论】灌水3 486 m3/hm2和氮肥195kg/hm2 的技术组合可作为新冬52号冬小麦的节本增效生产方案。

关键词: 水肥耦合, 滴灌冬小麦, 生理生长, 产量

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